OPINION

HERE ARE MY BEST PICK PICTURES OF THE DAY… WHICH IS YOUR FAVOURITE? 

REX FEATURES/Fahmi Bhs/Solent NewS

Perched on the nose of a crocodile, this brave frog probably won’t realise just how much of a lucky escape it’s had. For there’s one reason the reptile’s beady eye is fixed greedily on its visitor with jaws gaping wide in anticipation – feeding time. Photographer Fahmi Bhs captured this unexpected moment in a pool in Jakarta, Indonesia. Fahmi said: “It looked as though the croc had eaten enough breakfast and just wanted to keep the frog as a ‘little pet’ instead.”

BARCROFT MEDIA/Paul Cyr

 These rare images show a glowing full moon lining perfectly with the tallest mountain in the US state of Maine. Photographer Paul Cyr captured the stunning images of a full “worm moon” slowly disappearing behind Mount Katahdin. Paul endured temperatures of minus 26 degrees centigrade to snap the photos. The “worm moon” was given its name by the Algonquin Native American tribe because as the snow melts in March the ground softens and earthworms begin to appear again.
mmmmmmm
Rex Features/Anup Shah/NPl
Whatever the joke may be, judging by the grins on the faces of these macaques it must be a good one. The merry looking monkeys were snapped in the Tangkoko National Park in Sulawesi, Indonesia appearing to have a good laugh. The macaques actually flash their teeth in an effort to clear other monkeys from their private space. Unfortunately for them, they won’t have much luck scaring off the rival because what they are reacting to is their own reflection in the camera lens!
REUTERS/Babu
A man reacts to coloured water being splashed over him during Holi celebrations in the southern Indian city of Chennai. Holi, also known as the Festival of Colours, heralds the beginning of spring and is celebrated across India.
 
REUTERS/Adnan Abid
During rituals to mark the first day of the festival, Hindu priests jump out of a fire to signify the burning of the demon Holika, symbolising the victory of good over evil at the start of spring. Here, Hindu priest Babulal jumps out of a fire to signify the burning of the demon Holika at Phalen village, near the northern Indian city of Mathura.

REUTERS/Amit Dave
Hindu devotees raise their hands to receive coloured holy water from a priest (unseen) outside a temple during Holi celebrations in the western Indian city of Ahmedabad.
AP Photo/Antonio Calann
People wearing protection helmets and costumes throw oranges as part of the Battle of the Oranges carnival celebrations in the northern Italian Piedmont town of Ivrea. The traditional orange throwing battle has its roots in the middle of the 19th century. Thousands of townspeople, divided into nine combat teams, throw oranges at each other – with considerable violence – during the traditional carnival.
Rex Features/Mark Hersch
A stunning snap taken by a passenger on a Chicago-bound flight has captured the city silhouetted in Lake Michigan. Photographer Mark Hersch captured the scene as the passenger jet he was on made a final approach to the city. The image shows the low sun casting a golden glow on the water, visible beneath cloud cover as the buildings of the Windy City cast long shadows out into the water. Mark says the image has not been manipulated and is one of his favourite ever images.
REX FEATURES/John Salanoa/Solent News
This surfer appears to be throwing karate kicks – as he is flung above a huge 30ft breaking wave. The extreme sportsman aggressively attacked the giant wave as it began to break at Newport Beach, California. However, professional surfer Bobby Okvist did not have the speed to make it over the lip and was flung high into the air. In one picture he stares into the camera and waves, while in another he appears take a phone call as he flies 45ft above the sea level.
REX FEATURES/Ryan Deboodt/Solent News
A solitary caver stands illuminated by a beam of light and gazes up at the looming rock face towering above him. The limestone caves – the biggest in the world – almost swallow up the adventurers daring to step inside. These images from Vietnam’s Phong Nha Ke Bang National Park were taken by photographer Ryan Deboodt, who now lives in Ho Chi Minh City. To reach Hang En and Hang Son Doong caves he travelled by plane and car before embarking on treks of up to four hours through the jungle. He was lucky enough to capture a rare light phenomenon that only appears for an hour between 9.30 and 10.30am during January and February.
BARCROFT MEDIA/Xinhua/Landov
Two villagers wrestle against each other in a pool filled with cherry tomatoes in Tianyang County in Baise, China. People in Baise hold this bizarre activity each year in a pool filled with cracked and inedible cherry tomatoes to celebrate the tomato harvest.
AP PHOTO/Jens Mayer
The World Cup may be on the horizon but the robotic version is already underway. The RoboCup German Open takes place at the start of April in Magdeburg, Germany. 950 participants from 16 nations compete in the tournament till 6 April. Here, a robot of a German team, left, plays the ball besides a British team robot in the Kids League event.

On the up: 11 motoring icons that are worth more used than new

1.Cars that have gone up in value: Audi A1 quattro

Cars that have gone up in value (© Newspress)Cars that have gone up in value (© Newspress)Image; Newspress

Current price £45,000 Original price £41,020

Before the S1 arrived, the fastest version of Audi’s baby, was this limited edition A1 quattro, launched in 2012.

An expensive car to start with, this A1 has appreciated by almost four grand– an accurate value, according to Tom Hartley Sr. Just 19 of the 333 left-hand-drive, 256bhp superminis hit UK shores making it sought-after with buyers

2.Cars that have gone up in value: BMW 1 Series M Coupe

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Current price £49,995 Original price £40,020

The latest M235i may look promising, but it’s not a proper M car. This 2011 1 Series M Coupe is considered the real deal for true M car fans.

Only 450 were made, keeping low-mileage 1M values closer to the 50 grand mark. With 335bhp coming from its twin-turbo 3.5-litre engine, this 1 Series offers the power and driving experience to match the badge.

3.Cars that have gone up in value: Ferrari LaFerrari

Cars that have gone up in value (© Newspress)Cars that have gone up in value (© Newspress)

Image; Newspress

Current price £2 million  Original price £1 million

Carrying on from where the Enzo, F50 and F40 left off, the 950bhp, hybrid LaFerrari is the fastest and most advanced car the prancing horse manufacturer has ever produced.

‘Ferrari is the strongest motoring brand by far, stronger than any rival. Exclusivity and limited supply keep demand high

4.Cars that have gone up in value: Ford Focus RS500

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Current price £36,999  Original price £35,450

Proof that it’s not just second-hand, high-end premium models that are sought-after.

Just 500 were produced to mark the end of Focus RS production in 2010 and they sold out instantly. Yet at launch it was mocked for its matt black paint wrap, tints and the rear wing.

5.Cars that have gone up in value: Range Rover Sport Autobiography Dynamic

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Current price £82,950  Original price  £78,000

Following on from the hugely popular first-generation model, the latest Range Rover Sport looks sharper, with its Evoque-esque styling, and weight reductions deliver a driving experience to match the Sport name.

According to the car pricing specialist CAP Automotive, a long waiting list and people not buying direct from Land Rover usually adds £2,000 to the list price. ‘Trendsetter for premium values, it’s amazing that despite rivals, the Range Rover is still so popular four decades on..’

6.Cars that have gone up in value: Lexus LFA

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Current price £370,000  Original price  £343,000

Originally a concept from 2005, it took another five years for Lexus to finesse the LFA into a 2010 production reality.

Lexus’ only supercar is on this list, as only 500 were made, with just one produced per day, over the two years of production.

7.Cars that have gone up in value: McLaren P1

Cars that have gone up in value (© Newspress)Cars that have gone up in value (© Newspress)Image; Newspress

Current price £1.27 million  Original price £866,000

It has taken 15 years, but McLaren have finally replaced the uncompromising F1, with this – the P1. Just 106 F1s were produced, but there will be almost four times as many P1s when production ends. This hasn’t stopped McLaren from selling out of what is being dubbed the most exciting car on the road.

The P1 may have won over all those who have driven it, but Tom Hartley Sr isn’t convinced it will appreciate in value the same way the F1 has. ‘It is an impressive car, but I don’t think that the P1 will duplicate the success of the F1. We are living in different times and the P1 is a very different car.’ We have found one that has already shot up in value, but whether prices will increase in the long term remains to be seen.

8.Cars that have gone up in value: Mercedes C63 AMG Black Series Coupe

Cars that have gone up in value (© Newspress)Cars that have gone up in value (© Newspress)Image; Newspress

Current price £104,990  Original price  £100,000

The C63 Black Series has to be the most extreme and powerful version of the current C-Class Coupe. It’s not just about the mega 517bhp V8 engine, the C63 also has adjustable coil shocks, limited-slip differential and blistered bodywork, which make up this attractive mix.

Eight hundred in total were produced, with demand outstripping supply.

9.Cars that have gone up in value: Porsche 911 GT3 RS 4.0

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Current price £200,000  Original price £128,000

The 911GT3 RS 4.0 could be the definitive RS version of the 997-generation 911. A key highlight is Porsche’s highest output per litre engine – 125bhp – from the normally aspirated 3.0-litre one used.

On top of that engine, there is the car’s special, rose-jointed suspension and a unique aero pack to help smooth the airflow. Of the 600 produced, just 26 were sold to UK collectors and enthusiasts, resulting in their instant premium pricing.

10.Cars that have gone up in value: Rolls-Royce Wraith

Cars that have gone up in value (© Newspress)Cars that have gone up in value (© Newspress)Image; Newspress

Current price £239,000   Original price £235,000

The ultimate expression of what a modern Rolls-Royce should be? The Wraith coupe is also the most dynamic model in the current range and boasts a 624bhp punch, from the twin-turbo V12 engine.

A fastback version of the Ghost saloon, the Wraith is designed to appeal to younger buyers. Not that sporty to drive, it feels more dynamic, but still offers the expected refinement of a Rolls-Royce.

11.Cars that have gone up in value: Tesla Model S

Cars that have gone up in value (© Newspress)Cars that have gone up in value (© Newspress)Image; Newspress

Current price £100,000  Original price £98,000

The ultimate electric car? The Model S has room for four, offers a range of up to 312 miles, a top speed of 130mph and 0-60 acceleration in 5.9 seconds.

Model S versions are fetching more money than new for two reasons. The first is that the Tesla isn’t exactly cheap, with the entry-level model costing from £49,500, so it’s not going to appeal to everyday buyers. The second is that, so far, not many have been produced, with demand outstripping supply and celebrity buyers, such as will.i.am, keen to be seen in this electric car.

 


 

10 Retired Athletes Who Continue to Earn Millions

1. Michael Jordan / Basketball / 2013 Earnings: $90 Million

Sam Sharpe/USA TODAY Sports Images

When you’re widely considered to be the greatest basketball player of all time, it’s likely that you’re going to be in a position to make some good money despite having been retired for a number of years. Michael Jordan certainly accomplished that in 2013, when sixteen years after his last NBA game, he earned close to the $94 million he was paid for playing fifteen seasons in the league.

How did he do it? Most of his 2013 earnings were from Nike’s Jordan Brand, which constitutes more than half of the U.S. basketball shoe market. And then there were his endorsements, including those for Five Star Fragrances, Novant Health, 2K Sports, Upper Deck, Hanes, and Gatorade. Add to that earnings from owning a car dealership, seven restaurants, and 80% of the Charlotte Bobcats, and you have the formula for what made Michael Jordan the second highest-earning athlete of 2013 behind only boxer Floyd Mayweather, Jr.

2. Arnold Palmer / Golf / 2013 Earnings: $40 Million

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Retired American golfer Arnold Palmer, won seven majors and $1.9 million in prize money throughout his career with the PGA Tour. But today, at 84 years of age, he’s making even more than he did as an active athlete, 2013 being his most profitable year yet.

Much of the $40 million he earned last year was from the highly successful Arnold Palmer line of drinks manufactured by AriZona Beverage. In fact, the drinks attributed to Arnold constitute roughly 25% of the company’s revenues. He’s also earned a fortune from licensing his name in Asia, where there are at least 400 freestanding “Arnold Palmer” sports stores.

3. David Beckham  / Football / 2013 Earnings: $37 Million

Robert Mayer/USA TODAY Sports Images

David Beckham is the most recently retired athlete to make it to this list, his last game as a professional having been played on May 12, 2013. However, his endorsement deals haven’t dried up. Instead, Beckham has since signed several new contracts, including those with Asian companies: the Chinese Super League, China Auto Rental, and Sands. Those were additions to his already existing contracts with Samsung, Sainsbury’s, H&M, Coty, and Adidas.

David is set to make even more money as he is currently laying the foundation for a new Miami-based MLS team, his option to purchase a franchise being one of the perks included in his 2007 MLS signing contract.

4. Jack Nicklaus / Golf / 2013 Earnings: $30 Million

Jack Gruber-USA TODAY Sports Images

Jack Nicklaus offered a very interesting view of the golfing career he has had in connection to the life he’s currently enjoying as a retiree: “Most people work all their lives so they can eventually stop and go play golf. I played golf my whole life, and when I stopped I went to work.”

And with eighteen majors to his name, Jack can certainly command quite a hefty amount when he actually decides to “work”. After founding Nicklaus Design nearly 45 years ago, the company has designed 380 courses in 36 countries and 39 US states. In fact, the company currently has 55 projects under way, most of them in Asia.

5. Magic Johnson / Basketball / 2013 Earnings: $22 Million

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When Earvin “Magic” Johnson permanently left basketball in 1996 after coming back from an HIV-positive diagnosis, most people expected him to focus on dealing with his disease, then quietly fade away a couple of years later. Well, he’s had other ideas. In fact, in 2013,  the 5-time NBA champion earned millions from a business empire that dabbled in food services and staffing, insurance, and healthcare.

Furthermore, despite selling 105 Starbucks franchises and his 4.5% stake in the LA Lakers in 2010 (which together earned him more than $100 million), he still has an ownership stake with the Los Angeles Dodgers. In fact, in January of 2014, Johnson, along with Mark Walter, purchased the WNBA’s LA Sparks after its previous owners decided they could no longer financially support the franchise. With his business savvy, Magic is likely to take in a profit from the deal.

6. Shaquille O’Neal / Basketball / 2013 Earnings: $20 Million

Ed Szczepanski/USA TODAY Sports Images

When basketball fans see Shaquille O’Neal on his popular TV show “Shaqtin’ a Fool”, they likely see a former NBA superstar who’s lightheartedly and comfortably enjoying the money he was paid throughout his career. What probably doesn’t occur to most people is that Shaq is still earning millions each year despite having retired from the game in 2011.

In fact, in 2013, the 4-time NBA champion pocketed an awesome $20 million, mostly from his endorsement deals with Monster Headphones, IcyHot, and Buick, as well as his licensing deals with AriZona Beverage, Zales, and Macy’s. Furthermore, more than 100 million pairs of O’ Neal’s Shaq/Dunkman shoes have been sold worldwide. Of course, Shaq is also paid handsomely for his sports broadcasting work.

7. Gary Player / Golf / 2013 Earnings: $19 Million

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78-year-old former professional golfer Gary Player made more than twice as much money in 2013 as he did during all of his sixty years as an athlete on the PGA and Senior Golf tours. His main milking cow these days is his golf course design business, Black Knight International. Last year alone, the company generated an estimated $17 million in revenue with more than forty course design projects currently in the works. Added to that amount is the $8 million Player earned from corporate sponsors, which included the likes of SAP, Rolex, and Callaway. Another $5 million was banked from his real estate ventures and licensing deals.

Asked about retirement, Gary passionately opines,

This business of people having to retire from a company when they’re 60 or 50 is hogwash. How could you tell me I’ve got to retire at 78 when I could beat most guys under 40 in a fitness contest? How can you tell me to retire when I’m travelling more than most people that ever lived? And how can you tell me to retire when I’m working on my own ranch mixing cement, carrying poles, and driving a tractor?

8. Wayne Gretzky / Hockey / 2013 Earnings: $17 Million

Perry Nelson/USA TODAY Sports Images

When Wayne Gretzky left hockey in 1999 at 38 years of age, many fans believed he retired too early since he was still setting records at that time. However, Gretzky probably took into consideration that someone nicknamed “The Great One” who is known to be “the greatest hockey player ever” is likely to wield considerable drawing power as an endorser even after retirement. And that’s something Wayne certainly took advantage of in 2013.

Already the face of Bigelow, Breitling, Samsung, and TD, Gretzky signed contracts to endorse Upper Deck and Fairfax Capital last year. In addition, Wayne has a booming wine business and even took in $8 million as deferred compensation for his time with the NHL’s Phoenix Coyotes.

9. Greg Norman / Golf / 2013 Earnings: $16 Million

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Since wine gets better with age, what’s a more appropriate venture for a retiree than a wine estate? That was a question 7-time World #1 golfer Greg Norman probably answered “nothing” to when he partnered with winemakers from Beringer Blass to launch the Greg Norman Estates wineries in the 1990s. That turned out to be a very good business decision as the brand moves around 175,000 cases annually.

Adding further to Norman’s income as a retiree are his asset management, eyewear, and apparel business ventures, as well as his endorsements for Club Car, Pacific Links, Cobra Golf, Dow, Sandals, Omega, and Johnnie Walker. The earnings from all those deals are certainly nice supplements to the $15 million in prize money he pocketed while playing golf as a professional from 1977 to 2009.

10. Pelé / Football / 2013 Earnings: $15 Million

Brad Penner/USA TODAY Sports Images

With FIFA’s World Cup and the Summer Olympics coming to Brazil in 2014 and 2016, respectively, retired football great Pelé suddenly finds himself in hot demand. Despite the fact that it has been almost four decades since Pelé last played as a professional, the International Olympic Committee’s “Athlete of the Century” for the 1900s was still selected as Brazil’s most influential celebrity.

And as if it weren’t enough that “The King” was the best paid athlete in the world in his playing years, with his legendary status today have come numerous lucrative endorsement deals. Pelé is currently under contract with Emirates Airline, Subway, Carrefour, Hublot, Volkswagen, Vivo, Santander, and Procter & Gamble.

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Cervical cancer

Cervical cancer is an uncommon type of cancer that develops in a woman’s cervix. The cervix is the entrance to the womb from the vagina.

Cervical cancer often has no symptoms in its early stages. If you have symptoms, the most common is unusual vaginal bleeding, which can occur after sex, in-between periods or after the menopause.

Abnormal bleeding doesn’t mean that you definitely have cervical cancer, but it should be investigated by your GP/Doctor as soon as possible. If your GP/Doctor suspects you might have cervical cancer, you should be referred to see a specialist within two weeks.

Symptoms of cervical cancer

The symptoms of cervical cancer aren’t always obvious and it may not cause any symptoms at all until it has reached an advanced stage.

This is why it’s very important for you to attend your cervical screening appointments.

Unusual bleeding

In most cases, vaginal bleeding is the first noticeable symptom of cervical cancer. It usually occurs after having sex.

Bleeding at any other time, other than your expected monthlyperiod, is also considered unusual.

This includes bleeding after the menopause (when a woman’s monthly periods stop).

If you have any type of unusual vaginal bleeding, visit your GP/Doctor for advice.

Other symptoms

Other symptoms of cervical cancer may include:

Advanced cervical cancer

If the cancer spreads out of your cervix and into surrounding tissue and organs, it can trigger a range of other symptoms, including:

  • constipation
  • blood in your urine (haematuria)
  • loss of bladder control (urinary incontinence)
  • bone pain
  • swelling of one of your legs
  • severe pain in your side or back caused by swelling in your kidneys related to a condition calledhydronephrosis
  • changes to your bowel and bladder habits
  • loss of appetite
  • weight loss
  • tiredness and lack of energy

When to seek medical advice

It is recommended that you contact your GP/Doctor if you experience:

  • bleeding after having sex (postcoital bleeding)
  • bleeding outside of your normal periods
  • new bleeding after the menopause

Vaginal bleeding is very common and can have a range of causes, so it doesn’t necessarily mean that you have cervical cancer.

However, unusual vaginal bleeding is a symptom that needs to be investigated by your GP/Doctor.

Causes of cervical cancer

In almost all cases, cervical cancer is the result of a change in cell DNA caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).

Cancer begins with a change in the structure of the DNA that’s present in all human cells. DNA provides the cells with a basic set of instructions, including when to grow and reproduce.

A change in the DNA’s structure is known as a mutation. It can alter the instructions that control cell growth. This means that the cells continue growing instead of stopping when they should. If the cells reproduce uncontrollably, they produce a lump of tissue called a tumour.

Human papillomavirus (HPV)

More than 99% of cases of cervical cancer occur in women who have been previously infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is actually a group of viruses, rather than a single virus. There are more than 100 different types.

HPV is spread during sexual intercourse and is thought to be very common. An estimated one in three women will develop a HPV infection within two years of starting to have regular sex, and about four in every five women will develop the infection at some point in their lives.

Some types of HPV do not cause any noticeable symptoms and the infection will pass without treatment. Other types of HPV can cause genital warts, although these types are not associated with a high risk of causing cervical cancer.

About 15 types of HPV are considered high risk for cervical cancer. The two types known to have the highest risk are HPV 16 and HPV 18, which cause about 7 in every 10 cervical cancers.

High risk types of HPV are thought to contain genetic material that can be passed into the cells of the cervix. This material begins to disrupt the normal workings of the cells, which can eventually cause them to reproduce uncontrollably, leading to the growth of a cancerous tumour.

See preventing cervical cancer for more information about reducing your chances of developing HPV.

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)

Cancer of the cervix usually takes many years to develop. Before it does, the cells in the cervix often show changes known as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or, less commonly, cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN).

CIN and CGIN are pre-cancerous conditions. Pre-cancerous conditions do not pose an immediate threat to a person’s health, but they can potentially develop into cancer in the future.

However, even if you develop CIN or CGIN, the chances of it developing into cervical cancer are very small and if the changes are discovered during cervical screening, treatment is highly successful.

The progression from becoming infected with HPV to developing CIN or CGIN and then developing cervical cancer is very slow, often taking between 10 and 20 years.

Read more about cervical screening results.

Increased risk

The fact that HPV infection is very common but cervical cancer is relatively uncommon suggests that only a very small proportion of women are vulnerable to the effects of a HPV infection. There appear to be additional risk factors that affect a woman’s chance of developing cervical cancer.

These include:

  • smoking – women who smoke are twice as likely to develop cervical cancer than women who don’t; this may be caused by the harmful effects of chemicals found in tobacco on the cells of the cervix
  • having a weakened immune system – this can be the result of taking certain medications, such as immunosuppressants, which are used to stop the body rejecting donated organs, or as a result of a condition such as HIV/AIDS
  • taking the oral contraceptive pill for more than five years – women who do this are thought to have twice the risk of developing cervical cancer than those who do not take the pill, although it is not clear why this is
  • having children (the more children you have, the greater your risk) – women who have two children have twice the risk of getting cervical cancer compared with women who do not have any children

The reason for the link between cervical cancer and childbirth is unclear. One theory is that the hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy could make the cervix more vulnerable to the effects of HPV.

The spread of cervical cancer

If cervical cancer is undiagnosed and untreated, it will slowly spread out of the cervix and into the surrounding tissue and organs. The cancer can spread down to the vagina and the surrounding muscles that support the bones of the pelvis. Alternatively, it can spread upwards, blocking the tube that runs from your kidneys to your bladder (ureters).

The cancer can then spread into your bladder, rectum (back passage) and eventually into your liver, bones and lungs. Cancerous cells can also spread through your lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is a series of nodes (glands) and channels that are spread throughout your body in a similar way to your blood circulation system.

The lymph nodes produce many of the specialised cells that are needed by your immune system (the body’s natural defence against infection and illness). If you have an infection, the nodes in your neck or under your armpits may be swollen.

In some cases of early cervical cancer, the lymph nodes close to the cervix contain cancerous cells. And in some cases of advanced cervical cancer, lymph nodes in the chest and abdomen can be affected.

Please all my ladies make sure you watch out for any signs your body gives because,

It’s possible for women of all ages to develop cervical cancer, although the condition mainly affects sexually active women between the ages of 30 and 45. The condition is very rare in women under 25.

Around 3,000 cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed each year in the UK.

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Can women do math? New study finds both sexes believe men are better – regardless of a person’s actual ability

A new study has claimed that both men and women believes males are better at math – despite there actually being no difference in their abilities.

Researchers say the find could explain a bias that has kept women out of careers in science and engineering.

They say the problem is with ‘implicit stereotypes’ – but also admitted women tended to underestimate their ability while men tended to boast.

‘Women outnumber men in undergraduate enrollments, but they are much less likely than men to major in mathematics or science or to choose a profession in these fields,’ the team led by  Luigi Zingales and colleagues from three US universities wrote.

‘This outcome often is attributed to the effects of negative sex-based stereotypes.’

The team studied the effects in an experimental job interview, where subjects were hired to perform an arithmetic task that, on average, both genders perform equally well.

They assigned participants to be job candidates or employers.

‘Employers’ had to choose between two ‘candidates’ for a job that involved solving arithmetic problems, a task that men and women perform equally well.

Researchers say the find could explain a bias that has kept women out of careers in sceince and engineering.

Researchers say the find could explain a bias that has kept women out of careers in sceince and engineering.

Employers earned more money if they chose the candidate who performed better on the arithmetic task.

‘We find that without any information other than a candidate’s appearance (which makes sex clear), both male and female subjects are twice more likely to hire a man than a woman.’

They also found letting potential candidates rate their own capabilities had a similar outcome.

‘The discrimination survives if performance on the arithmetic task is self-reported, because men tend to boast about their performance, whereas women generally underreport it.’

They even found that revealed test scores did not remove the bias entirely.

‘The discrimination is reduced, but not eliminated, by providing full information about previous performance on the task,’ they said.

The study is ‘quite important,’ Mahzarin Banaji, a psychologist at Harvard University who was not involved in the research, told Science Now – because it shows that people’s prejudice not only affects their judgment of women’s math skills, but also impairs their ability to correct it.

‘The stronger the gender stereotype, the less you are likely to change in favor of women even when you hear about [a woman’s] strong performance on the test.’

The fact that women not only tend to underestimate their own math skills when they are job candidates but also underestimate the ability of other women when they are in a hiring position reveals what “members of disadvantaged groups are costing themselves,” Banaji says.

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The real roads to hell: Interactive map reveals the world’s 22 most deadly highways

Britons might consider a congested stretch of motorway with mile-long tailbacks as a hellish road.

But a map showing the world’s most deadly stretches of highway makes the M25 look tame in comparison.

From cliff-top single track roads with deadly drops in Pakistan to highways renowned for their bandits in Mexico, an interactive map includes ‘fear factor’ ratings for the routes and includes perilous facts about them to highlight the dangers of driving.

The North Yungas road in Bolivia is widely considered to be the world’s most dangerous route and has even earned the nickname of ‘death road’.

The 40-mile stretch of single-track road meanders round cliffs and there are no barriers to protect drivers going in opposite directions from deadly drops.

Scotland's A726, otherwise known as the old A74 has a fear factor of four out of 10. The map explains that the seven kilometre stretch of road is renowned for head-on collisions and has racked up nearly 40 fatalities between 2000 and 2005

Scotland’s A726, otherwise known as the old A74 has a fear factor of four out of 10. The map explains that the seven kilometre stretch of road is renowned for head-on collisions and has racked up nearly 40 fatalities between 2000 and 2005

Each road is rated according to its ‘fear factor’ with the North Yungas scoring 10 out of 10, while Pakistan’s picturesque-sounding Fairy Meadows Road was rated the second scariest because of its ‘treacherous high altitude, unstable and narrow mountain roads.’

Factors such as altitude, safety precautions in place including barriers, local driving techniques, the condition of vehicles, road surfaces, annual road deaths per country and weather conditions were all taken into account when producing the map.

From cliff-top single track roads with deadly drops to highways rebound for their bandits, an interactive map includes 'fear factor' ratings for the routes and includes perilous facts about them. The North Yungas road in Bolivia (pictured) is widely considered to be the world's most dangerous routeOver 1.2million people are killed in road accidents each year and a further 20 to 50million are injured. the trans Siberian Highway is pictured, where drivers have to negotiate heavy rain and unmaintained surfaces

From cliff-top single track roads with deadly drops to highways rebound for their bandits, an interactive map includes ‘fear factor’ ratings for the routes and includes perilous facts about them. The North Yungas road in Bolivia (pictured) is widely considered to be the world’s most dangerous route(left pic)

Over 1.2million people are killed in road accidents each year and a further 20 to 50million are injured. the trans Siberian Highway is pictured, where drivers have to negotiate heavy rain and unmaintained surfaces(right pic)

The world’s longest road – the Pan-American Highway, which begins in Alaska and passes through countries in South America – is included on the map because of its high temperatures, landslides, impassable sections in wet weather and even livestock in the road.

But closer to home, Scotland’s A726, otherwise known as the old A74, has a fear factor of four out of 10.

The map explains that the seven kilometre stretch of road is renowned for head-on collisions and has racked up nearly 40 fatalities between 2000 and 2005.

A high proportion of the accidents involved pedestrians or cyclists, while one fifth saw vehicles leave the road, which is exceptionally twisty for a dual carriageway and is also busy.

Norway’s Trollstigen or ‘troll ladder’ comprises many hairpin bends and sheer drops which get particularly perilous in icy conditions, while Brazil’s Rodovia da Morte puts drivers at risk in a very different way.

The ‘highway of death’ is responsible for thousands of deaths every year and is poorly maintained, with gangs and bandits along its long stretch.

The map, which lists roads all over the world, was created to highlight the dangers of driving, as although road safety is improving, over 1.2million people are killed in road accidents each year and a further 20 to 50million are injured.

The world's longest road - the Pan-American Highway, which begins in Alaska and passes through countries in South America, is included on the map because of its high temperatures, landslides, impassable sections in wet weather and even livestock in the road (pictured)

The world’s longest road – the Pan-American Highway, which begins in Alaska and passes through countries in South America, is included on the map because of its high temperatures, landslides, impassable sections in wet weather and even livestock in the road (pictured)

Pakistan's picturesque-sounding Fairy Meadows Road (pictured) was rated the second scariest road because of its 'treacherous high altitude, unstable and narrow mountain roads'Norway's Trollstigen or 'troll ladder' (pictured) comprises many hairpin bends and sheer drops, which get particularly perilous in icy conditions, while Brazil¿s Rodovia da Morte puts drivers at risk in a very different way

Pakistan’s picturesque-sounding Fairy Meadows Road (pictured) was rated the second scariest road because of its ‘treacherous high altitude, unstable and narrow mountain roads'(left pic)

Norway’s Trollstigen or ‘troll ladder’ (pictured) comprises many hairpin bends and sheer drops, which get particularly perilous in icy conditions, while Brazil¿s Rodovia da Morte puts drivers at risk in a very different way(right pic)

THE WORLD’S 22 MOST DANGEROUS ROADS ON THE MAP

  • Pan-American Highway – Alaska, U.S.
  • Trans Siberian Highway – Russia
  • N2 Settlers Freeway – South Africa
  • Nairobi-Nakuru Highway – Kenya, Africa
  • T0117, Bakhchysarai Highway – Ukraine
  • Trollstigen – Norway
  • Federal Highway 1 – Mexico
  • North Yungas Road – Bolivia
  • Commonwealth Avenue – Quezon City, Philippines
  • James Dalton Highway – Alaska, U.S.
  • BR-116, Rodovia da Morte – Brazil
  • Zoji La – India
  • Guoliang Tunnel Road – China
  • Taroko Gorge Road – Taiwan
  • The Pasubio Road – Italy
  • Skippers Canyon Road – New Zealand
  • Nanga Parbat Pass – Pakistan
  • Bruce Highway – Queensland, Australia
  • U.S. Route 431 – Alabama, U.S.
  • A726, the old A74 – Scotland, UK
  • Patiopoulo-Perdikaki Road – Greece
  • Ruta 5 – Chile

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Why you should NEVER keep your mobile in your bedroom

The next time you can’t sleep, your brain whirring over shopping lists, tomorrow’s meetings and whether or not you locked the back door, the solution could be simple – move your mobile phone off the bedside table and out of your bedroom altogether.

Eight out of ten of us keep our mobiles on overnight according to Ofcom, and around half use our phone as an alarm clock, a survey found.

But experts are concerned about the effect this is having – at the very least it makes us ‘hypervigilant’ so our sleep is more likely to be disturbed and we end up not getting enough of the restorative sleep we need. But it might also trigger insomnia and other sleeping problems.

Most people will sleep better if the bedroom is kept free of mobile phones and other electronic devices, says Dr Guy Meadows, insomnia specialist at The Sleep School, London. Dr Meadows leaves his smartphone in the kitchen at night.

More controversially, there are suggestions that sleeping with your mobile by your bed may cause dizziness and headaches.

The main problem with mobile phones in the bedroom is light, particularly the kind produced by the bright, high-quality screen on modern phones.

It interferes with the body’s natural rhythm, effectively tricking our bodies into believing it’s daytime, according to Dr Charles Czeisler, a professor of sleep medicine at Harvard University.

Light stimulates cells in the retina, the area at the back of the eye that transmits messages to the brain. The light-sensitive cells inform our body what time it is, explains Dr Meadows.

‘This controls the release of the hormone melatonin, which makes you feel sleepy, and the waking hormone, cortisol.’

All artificial light, whether from standard light bulbs or fluorescent strips, is thought to inhibit the release of melatonin, keeping us awake longer. But light from mobiles may have a greater effect.

A phone's light interferes with the body's natural rhythm, tricking our bodies into believing it's daytime

A phone’s light interferes with the body’s natural rhythm, tricking our bodies into believing it’s daytime

Why? Most of us think of normal light as white, but it’s made up of different colours of varying wavelengths, explains Professor Debra Skene, a neuroendocrinologist at the University of Surrey.

And the light emitted by phones, tablets and e-readers contains a great deal of blue – this means it has a more stimulating effect.

‘We know that because of a pigment called melanopsin, the cells in the retina are most sensitive to blue light,’ says Professor Skene.

This is why reading something on a phone or tablet before bed could be more likely to keep you awake than reading a book with your bedside light – and it’s why sleep experts advise a ban on screen time two to three hours before bed.

TV screens also emit blue light, but with mobiles the light source is closer to your eyes.

‘As well as the type of light, what determines the effect on your body clock is brightness, duration, time of day and the distance from the light,’ says Professor Skene. ‘So if you’re holding a very bright screen close to your face, at 2, 3, 4am – you’re  doing everything you possibly could that would make you more alert.’

Even short bursts of light – from a message alert or checking your phone – may have an effect. A 2011 study at Stanford University in the U.S. tested the effect of a total of just 0.12 seconds of light exposure during the night. Participants were exposed to pulses of light lasting two milliseconds each for an hour. This delayed the bodyclock and people became more alert.

‘This, along with other studies comparing intermittent and continuous light, suggests the first part of any light exposure is more effective on making the body more alert than the later part of light exposure,’ says Professor Skene.

And because of the way we sleep, having a mobile by the bed means if we do wake up in the night, we’re more likely to stay awake.

As Dr Meadows explains: ‘We sleep in cycles of 1½-2 hours, with brief moments of waking in between that normally go unnoticed.

‘A flash of light or vibration of your phone from a text message at the wrong moment could make you fully conscious’

‘This stems from our evolutionary past when, if we stayed fast asleep, there was a high chance we’d end up as a lion’s midnight snack. So the brain wakes to check for danger.’

But in these brief waking moments, any outside stimulus has the potential to drag you out of sleep – for instance, a flash of light or vibration of your phone from a text message at the wrong moment could make you fully conscious.

‘If you then check your phone, you’ll be stimulating the cognitive parts of your brain, too – which really will stop you sleeping,’ adds Dr Meadows.

Four in ten smartphone users say they check their phone if they’re disturbed by it in the night.
‘There’s not always something new or interesting every time you check your messages – but there might be,’ explains Tom Stafford, a lecturer in psychology and cognitive science at Sheffield University.

‘This has a powerful effect – even more than when we know for certain there will be something rewarding. So we want to check our phone more often than we rationally know we should – just in case.’ This ties in with what Harvard neuroscientist Dr Orfeu Buxton has described as ‘threat vigilance’ – because we’re never truly relaxed when our mobile is by the bed, we struggle to sleep properly.

Sleep expert Dr Neil Stanley adds: ‘In order to get a good night’s sleep, you have to feel safe and not worried about anything. By having your phone close by at night, you’re subconsciously saying you wish to attend to that phone.

‘The brain will monitor the situation and your sleep will be lighter and more likely to be disturbed.’
Then there is the question of what your phone signal may be doing to your brain as you sleep.

A mobile phone works by ‘talking’ to a base station using radio waves – a type of electromagnetic radiation. Radio waves are non-ionising radiation which means, unlike X-rays or radiation in cancer treatment, they do not have enough energy to change the structure of atoms. However, there is evidence that radiation may affect electrical activity in the brain during sleep.

Four in ten smartphone users say they check their phone if they're disturbed by it in the night

Four in ten smartphone users say they check their phone if they’re disturbed by it in the night

‘We can now say that exposure to radiation before bed – at a level equivalent to making a call on a mobile for 30 minutes – does seem to lead to a small increase in electrical activity in the brain,’ says Dr Sarah Loughran of the Australian centre for electromagnetic bioeffects research at the University of Wollongong.

‘This happens mainly in the stage of non-rapid eye movement sleep that occurs either side of deep sleep. We don’t yet know what these findings may mean.’

A small 2008 study found that participants took an average of six minutes longer to reach deep sleep after being exposed to mobile phone radiation. They also spent an average eight minutes less time in the deepest stage of sleep. This is believed to be the most refreshing part of the sleep cycle.

But if the scientists say they need more evidence for the effects on the brain, people who say they suffer from electrosensitivity do not. This is a controversial cluster of symptoms such as headaches, nausea, dizziness, tinnitus and sleep disorders blamed on electromagnetic energy from sources such as mobiles or wi-fi.

Dr Andrew Tresidder, a Somerset GP, says he’s found some patients who complained of disturbed sleep or headaches improved once they switched their mobile phones off in their bedroom.

‘So we want to check our phone more often than we rationally know we should – just in case’

Dr Tresidder, now a trustee of the campaign group Electrosensitivity UK, adds: ‘We don’t really know the mechanism here, but given how sensitive the cells in our bodies are to other types of energy waves such as sound or light, it would be surprising if we weren’t sensitive to other kinds of frequency – such as radio waves.’

But many researchers are sceptical and say we can’t say these symptoms are caused by so-called electrosmog. Dr James Rubin of the Institute of Psychiatry at King’s College, London, has reviewed research on mobile phone exposure and how people feel they’ve slept – 11 studies in total, during which participants were exposed either to radiation or a sham form while they slept; they were quizzed on how they felt in the morning.

‘The good news is we can’t see an effect on sleep quality,’ says Dr Rubin. ‘This is not to say the symptoms of electrosensitivity aren’t real – they are, and can be devastating. But as far as we can tell, it’s not the electromagnetic field causing them.’

Professor Malcolm Sperrin, director of medical physics and clinical engineering at the Royal Berkshire hospital, adds: ‘There just isn’t the evidence to say radiation from your phone can affect your health in this way.

‘Actually, when it comes to electro-magnetic fields, charging your phone would be worse – as the transformer plugged into the mains would be giving a more intense field.’

But what the experts do agree on is that taking your phone to bed is not going to help you sleep. So if you’re struggling to switch off – switch it off.

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23 Incredibly Successful People Who Failed At First

Winston Churchill was estranged from his political party over ideological disagreements during the “wilderness years” of 1929 to 1939.

Winston Churchill was estranged from his political party over ideological disagreements during the "wilderness years" of 1929 to 1939.

AP Photo

At the outbreak of World War II on Sep. 3, 1939, Churchill was appointed to the British Admiralty, thus ending his “exile.” The next year, he was elected prime minister at the age of 62.

Thomas Edison’s teachers told him he was “too stupid to learn anything.”

Thomas Edison's teachers told him he was "too stupid to learn anything."

AP Photo

Edison went on to hold more than 1,000 patents and invented some world-changing devices, like the phonograph, practical electrical lamp, and a movie camera.

Oprah Winfrey was fired from her first television job as an anchor in Baltimore, where she said she faced sexism and harassment.

Oprah Winfrey was fired from her first television job as an anchor in Baltimore, where she said she faced sexism and harassment.

Photo by Richard Shotwell/Invision/AP

But Winfrey rebounded and became the undisputed queen of television talk shows before amassing a media empire. Today she is worth an estimated $2.9 billion, according to Forbes.

Walt Disney was fired by a newspaper editor because he “lacked imagination and had no good ideas.”

Walt Disney was fired by a newspaper editor because he "lacked imagination and had no good ideas."

AP Photo

Several more of his businesses failed before the premiere of his movie “Snow White.” Today, most childhoods wouldn’t be the same without his ideas.

Steven Spielberg was rejected by the University of Southern California School of Cinematic Arts multiple times.

Steven Spielberg was rejected by the University of Southern California School of Cinematic Arts multiple times.

Photo by Danny Moloshok/Invision/AP

He went on to create the first summer blockbuster with “Jaws” in 1975, and has won three Academy Awards.

R.H. Macy had a series of failed retail ventures throughout his early career.

R.H. Macy had a series of failed retail ventures throughout his early career.

YouTube/A&E Biography

But at the age of 36, Macy launched R.H. Macy & Co., which grew to become Macy’s, one of the largest department store chains in the world.

Soichiro Honda’s unique vision got him ostracized by the Japanese business community.

Soichiro Honda's unique vision got him ostracized by the Japanese business community.

Getty Images/ The Asahi Shimbun

Honda was a mechanical genius who idolized Edison and rebelled against the norm. His passion for aggressive individualism was more fit for the United States, and thus alienated him from Japanese businessmen, who valued teamwork above all else. Honda then boldly challenged the American automotive industry in the 1970s and led a Japanese automotive revolution.

Colonel Harland David Sanders was fired from dozens of jobs before founding a successful restaurant.

Colonel Harland David Sanders was fired from dozens of jobs before founding a successful restaurant.

AP Photo

He traveled across the U.S. looking for someone to sell his fried chicken, and after finally getting a business deal in Utah, Kentucky Fried Chicken was born. KFC is now one of the most recognizable franchises in the world, with over 18,000 locations.

After having trouble adjusting to the culture and his classes, Dick Cheney dropped out of Yale — and then returned, only to drop out for good.

After having trouble adjusting to the culture and his classes, Dick Cheney dropped out of Yale — and then returned, only to drop out for good.

AP Photo/Richard Drew

George W. Bush once joked: “So now we know if you graduate from Yale, you become president. If you drop out, you get to be vice president.”

Sir Isaac Newton’s mother pulled him out of school as a boy so that he could run the family farm. He failed miserably.

Sir Isaac Newton's mother pulled him out of school as a boy so that he could run the family farm. He failed miserably.

Getty Images/Portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller

Realizing her son was not meant to till the land, she let Newton finish his basic education and was eventually persuaded to allow him to enroll in Cambridge University. Newton went on to become one of the greatest scientists of all time, revolutionizing physics and mathematics.

Vera Wang failed to make the U.S. Olympic figure-skating team. Then she became an editor at Vogue and was passed over for the editor-in-chief position.

Vera Wang failed to make the U.S. Olympic figure-skating team. Then she became an editor at Vogue and was passed over for the editor-in-chief position.

Photo by Charles Sykes/Invision/AP

She began designing wedding gowns at age 40 and today is one of the premier designers in the fashion industry, with a business worth over $1 billion.

When Sidney Poitier first auditioned for the American Negro Theatre, he flubbed his lines and spoke in a heavy Caribbean accent, which made the director angrily tell him to stop wasting his time.

When Sidney Poitier first auditioned for the American Negro Theatre, he flubbed his lines and spoke in a heavy Caribbean accent, which made the director angrily tell him to stop wasting his time.

Photo by Dan Steinberg/Invision/AP

Poitier worked on his craft and eventually became a hugely successful Hollywood star. He won an Academy Award for Best Actor and helped break down the color barrier in the American film industry.

As a child, Albert Einstein had some difficulty communicating and learning in a traditional manner.

As a child, Albert Einstein had some difficulty communicating and learning in a traditional manner.

AP Photo

Of course, Einstein’s communication and behavioral problems were not indicative of a lack of intelligence. He won the Nobel prize in physics for the discovery of the photoelectric effect, and his special theory of relativity theory corrected the deficiencies of Newtonian physics.

Note: A previous version of this slide incorrectly stated that the Nobel prize was for his theory of relativity.

In one of Fred Astaire’s first screen tests, an executive wrote: “Can’t sing. Can’t act. Slightly balding. Can dance a little.”

In one of Fred Astaire's first screen tests, an executive wrote: "Can't sing. Can't act. Slightly balding. Can dance a little."

AP Photo

Astaire went on to become a Hollywood and Broadway legend.

J.K. Rowling was a single mom living off welfare when she began writing the first “Harry Potter” novel.

J.K. Rowling was a single mom living off welfare when she began writing the first "Harry Potter" novel.

Photo by Dan Hallman/Invision/AP

Rowling is now internationally renowned for her seven-book Harry Potter series and, in U.S. currency, became the first billionaire author in 2004.

Charles Darwin was considered an average student. He gave up on a career in medicine and was going to school to become a parson.

Charles Darwin was considered an average student. He gave up on a career in medicine and was going to school to become a parson.

AP Photo, File

But as Darwin studied nature, he found his true calling and traveled the world to uncover nature’s mysteries. His writings, especially “On the Origin of the Species,” fundamentally changed the world of science by spreading the discovery of evolution.

Vincent Van Gogh sold only one painting, “The Red Vineyard,” in his life, and the sale was just months before his death.

Vincent Van Gogh sold only one painting, "The Red Vineyard," in his life, and the sale was just months before his death.

Getty Images/Self-Portrait by Vincent Van Gogh

If he had given up his artistic career after it proved to strain his financial and emotional well-being, the art world would be missing hundreds of paintings from a true master.

After Harrison Ford’s first small movie role, an executive took him into his office and told him he’d never succeed in the movie business.

After Harrison Ford's first small movie role, an executive took him into his office and told him he'd never succeed in the movie business.

Photo by Dan Steinberg/Invision/AP

Ford’s career went on to span six decades, and has included timeless starring roles in blockbuster films like the “Star Wars” and “Indiana Jones” series.

Theodor Seuss Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, had his first book rejected by 27 different publishers.

Theodor Seuss Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, had his first book rejected by 27 different publishers.

AP Photo

Dr. Seuss became a legendary children’s author known around the world for classics like “The Cat in the Hat” and “Green Eggs and Ham.” His books have sold over 600 million copies.

Lucille Ball appeared in so many second-tier films at the start of her career that she became known as “The Queen of B Movies.”

Lucille Ball appeared in so many second-tier films at the start of her career that she became known as "The Queen of B Movies."

Getty Images/Mondadori Portfolio

Then she got her big break when CBS picked up her and her husband Desi Arnaz’s vaudeville act and turned it into the highly influential sitcom “I Love Lucy.”

A young Henry Ford ruined his reputation with a couple of failed automobile businesses.

A young Henry Ford ruined his reputation with a couple of failed automobile businesses.

AP Photo

However, after conducting a search, he was finally able to find a partner who had faith in him. Ford proved he had learned from his mistakes when Ford Motor Company forever changed the automotive industry and culture with his assembly line mode of production.

While developing his vacuum, Sir James Dyson went through 5,126 failed prototypes and his savings over 15 years.

While developing his vacuum, Sir James Dyson went through 5,126 failed prototypes and his savings over 15 years.

Getty Images/Derek Hudson

But the 5,127th prototype worked, and the Dyson brand became the best-selling bagless vacuum brand in the United States. He is now worth an estimated $4.5 billion, according to Forbes.

Stephen King grew so frustrated over his attempt to write the novel “Carrie” that he threw away the entire early draft.

Stephen King grew so frustrated over his attempt to write the novel "Carrie" that he threw away the entire early draft.

AP Photo/Elise Amendola, file

King’s wife Tabitha found the manuscript in the trash and took it out. “Carrie” became a hit and launched his career. His novels have since sold over 350 million copies.

For some more inspiration when you’re knocked down…

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People who have trouble sleeping have smaller brains and have more psychiatric problems

People who have trouble sleeping tend to have less volume in certain regions of the brain than those without sleep problems, a new study of Persian Gulf War veterans suggests.

‘People discount the importance of sleep. So many things seem so much more important than a few extra hours of sleep a night,’ lead author Linda L. Chao told Reuters Health.

‘The study suggests we shouldn’t discount sleep importance,’ she said.

Chao, from the University of California, San Francisco, collaborated with researchers at the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center in San Francisco on the study published in the journal Sleep.

Previous research has linked sleep disturbances to structural brain changes, the authors note. In their study, sleep was associated with the amount of gray matter in the brain’s frontal lobe in particular.

‘There’s other corroborating data showing that insomnia and a variety of psychiatric illnesses are reflected in reduced volumes in the brain, which makes sense because sleep and mood are functions of the brain,’ Dr. John Winkelman told Reuters Health.

A psychiatrist, Winkelman is chief of the sleep disorders clinical research program at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. He was not involved in the current study.

He described the frontal lobes as “an essential part of human functioning,” necessary for planning, strategizing, mood and affect.

Veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently complain about sleep difficulties, according to Chao and her colleagues. Studies have found high rates of sleep disorders among veterans of America’s wars in Iraq and Afghanistan who had head injuries or PTSD (see Reuters Health story of October 28, 2011.

People with reduced sleep quality had reduced frontal lobe gray matter and more psychological problems than people who didn't

People with reduced sleep quality had reduced frontal lobe gray matter and more psychological problems than people who didn’t

For the current study, the researchers scanned the brains of 144 mostly male veterans using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

They measured sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, a crude, self-rated index that asks broad questions about sleep patterns over the past month.

For example, the index asks participants a single question about the time they usually went to bed over the past month and another about how long it usually took them to fall asleep.

The researchers found participants who reported poor quality sleep overall had less frontal lobe gray matter than vets who reported sleeping relatively well.

In addition to sleep troubles, a host of psychological problems plagued the study veterans. Half had abused alcohol, 40 percent had had major depressive disorder at some point and 18 percent had PTSD.

Still, the link between sleep troubles and brain volume held even after the researchers took those problems and psychotropic medicine use into account.

The more people study veteran sleep patterns the more they can help veterans improve their life and their mood

The more people study veteran sleep patterns the more they can help veterans improve their life and their mood

Winkelman cautioned against inferring a cause-and-effect relationship between sleep and brain volume or generalizing the results of a study on veterans with a range of psychiatric problems to the general population.

But Chao believes the findings could apply to anyone, not just war veterans.

Although she stressed that the study underscores the importance of a good night’s sleep, she agreed that it’s not possible to say that troubled sleep causes a decrease in frontal lobe gray matter, or vice versa.

‘We only know there’s a relationship,’ Michael Breus, an Arizona clinical psychologist who is board-certified in sleep disorders, told Reuters Health. ‘We don’t know which came first.’

Breus was not involved in the current study. He applauded the researchers for examining sleep patterns in war veterans, a group particularly plagued with disturbed sleep.

‘If they’ve been in an active theater of war, they haven’t slept well since they’ve been in an active war,’ he said.

He said polysomnography, which monitors people’s sleep and collects objective data, would have made the results of the current study more meaningful.

Chao also said she would have preferred to use objective sleep data. But the current report was based on a second look at data from a prior study.

‘The data says to us this could be a very interesting population to learn more about,’ Breus said. ‘If we can learn more about veteran sleep, we can help them sleep more.’

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Great Walls of America ‘could stop tornadoes’

Building three “Great Walls” across Tornado Alley in the US could eliminate the disasters, a physicist says.

The barriers – 300m (980ft) high and up to 100 miles long – would act like hill ranges, softening winds before twisters can form.

They would cost $16bn (£9.6bn) to build but save billions of dollars of damage each year, said Prof Rongjia Tao, of Temple University, Philadelphia.

He unveiled his idea at the American Physical Society meeting in Denver.

However critics say the idea is unworkable, and would create more problems than it solves.

Threat over ‘forever’

Every year hundreds of twisters tear through communities in the great north-south corridor between the Rocky and Appalachian Mountain ranges.

Continue reading the main story

“Start Quote

We may not have east-west mountain ranges – like the Alps in Europe – we can build walls”

Prof Rongjia TaoTemple University, Philadelphia

The proposed walls would not shelter towns – they would not be strong enough to block a tornado in motion.

Instead, they would soften the clashing streams of hot southern and cold northern air, which form twisters in the first place, Prof Tao said.

“If we build three east-west great walls, one in North Dakota, one along the border between Kansas and Oklahoma, and the third in the south in Texas and Louisiana, we will diminish the threats in Tornado Alley forever,” he said.

As evidence, he points to China – where only three tornadoes were recorded last year, compared to 803 in the US.

BBC map showing number of tornadoes by US state per year

China too has flat plain valleys running north-south, but the difference is they are broken up by east-west hill ranges.

Although only a few hundred metres high, they are enough to take the sting out of air currents before they clash, Prof Tao believes.

Hotspot

Back in the US, he notes that the flat farmlands of Illinois experience wildly varying risks of twisters.

“Washington County is a tornado hotspot. But just 60 miles (100km) away is Gallatin County, where there is almost no risk,” he told BBC News.

“Why? Just look at the map – at Gallatin you have the Shawnee Hills.”

These act like a barrier 200-250m (820ft) high, protecting Gallatin, he says.

“We may not have east-west mountain ranges – like the Alps in Europe – we can build walls.”

Comcast skyscraper in PhiladelphiaProf Tao said the design of the walls could be inspired by the Comcast skyscraper in Philadelphia

“We’ve already been doing computer simulations and next we aim to build physical models for testing [in wind tunnels].”

Rather than create an eyesore, the walls could be “attractively” designed, says Prof Tao.

He cites the Comcast skyscraper in Philadelphia – also about 300m high, and built with a reinforced glass exterior.

“Our tornado wall could even be built of glass too. It could be a beautiful landmark,” he told BBC News.

“I spoke to some architects and they said it’s possible. It would take a few years to finish the walls but we could build them in stages.”

Prof Tao has yet to approach government or environmental agencies with his scheme, but the reaction from meteorologists has been highly sceptical.

Harold Brooks, of the National Severe Storms Laboratory, said the great walls “simply wouldn’t work”.

He told USA Today that tornadoes still occur in parts of Oklahoma, Arkansas and Missouri despite east-west hill ranges similar in size to Prof Tao’s proposed barriers.

‘Poorly conceived’

Continue reading the main story

“Start Quote

The cure could be worse than the disease”

Prof Joshua WurmanCenter for Severe Weather Research

Another leading tornado expert, Prof Joshua Wurman of the Center for Severe Weather Research, was equally dismissive of Prof Tao’s proposal.

“Everybody I know is of 100% agreement – this is a poorly conceived idea,” he told BBC News.

“From what I can gather his concept of how tornadoes form is fundamentally flawed. Meteorologists cringe when they hear about ‘clashing hot and cold air’. It’s a lot more complicated than that.”

Though much of the blame does lie with warm air rushing north from the Gulf of Mexico, stopping it would be nigh on impossible, Prof Wurman says.

“Perhaps if he built his barrier on the scale of the Alps – 2,000-3,000m (9,800ft) high, it would disrupt it,” he says.

“But clearly that would also cause a drastic change in climate.”

And there lies the real crux of the problem, says Prof Wurman. Any geoengineering scheme powerful enough to eliminate tornadoes would also by definition have catastrophic side effects.

“The cure could be worse than the disease,” he told BBC News.

“So the solution to tornadoes is not trying to get rid of them.

“It’s better predictions and warnings so people can get out of way. Better homes. Better shelters.”

He added: “Don’t get me wrong, I’m open to new ideas. I consider myself an out-of-the-box thinker. But just because an idea is heretical, doesn’t mean it’s a good one.”

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Malaria ‘spreading to new altitudes’

Warmer temperatures are causing malaria to spread to higher altitudes, a study suggests.

Researchers have found that people living in the highlands of Africa and South America are at an increased risk of catching the mosquito-borne disease during hotter years.

They believe that temperature rises in the future could result in millions of additional cases in some areas.

The research is published in the journal Science.

Prof Mercedes Pascual, from the University of Michigan in the US, who carried out the research, said: “The impact in terms of increasing the risk of exposure to disease is very large.”

Vulnerable to disease

Areas at higher altitudes have traditionally provided a haven from this devastating disease.

Continue reading the main story

“Start Quote

This expansion could in a sense account for a substantial part of the increase of cases we have already observed in these areas”

Professor Mercedes PascualUniversity of Michigan

Both the malaria parasite and the mosquito that carries it struggle to cope with the cooler air.

Prof Pascual said: “The risk of the disease decreases with altitude and this is why historically people have settled in these higher regions.”

But the scientists say the disease is entering new regions that had previously been malaria-free.

To investigate, scientists looked at densely populated areas in the highlands of Colombia and Ethiopia, where there are detailed records of both temperature and malaria cases from the 1990s to 2005.

They found that in warmer years, malaria shifted higher into the mountains, while in cooler years it was limited to lower elevations.

“This expansion could in a sense account for a substantial part of the increase of cases we have already observed in these areas,” said Prof Pascual.

Ethiopian HighlandsThe highlands of Ethiopia could be more vulnerable to malaria if temperatures rise

The team believes that rising temperatures could cause a further spread.

In Ethiopia, where nearly half of the population live at an altitude of between 1,600m (5,250ft) and 2,400m, the scientists believe there could be many more cases.

“We have estimated that, based on the distribution of malaria with altitude, a 1C rise in temperature could lead to an additional three million cases in under-15-year-olds per year,” said Prof Pascual.

The team believes that because people living in areas that have never been exposed to malaria are particularly vulnerable to the disease, attempts to stop the spread should be focused on areas at the edge of the spread. The disease is easier to control there than at lower altitudes where it has already established.

According to the latest estimates from the World Health Organization, there were about 207 million cases of malaria in 2012 and an estimated 627,000 deaths. Most deaths occur among children living in Africa.

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Ever wondered what you sound like to a foreigner? Woman speaks gibberish with perfect accent to unveil the mystery

A young woman has filmed herself speaking gibberish in a string of different accents to show how people speaking foreign languages sound – at least to her.

Nineteen-year-old Sara from Finland uses her remarkable skill for mimicry to show what different languages sound to foreigners who don’t understand them.

Her caricatures are so good that, to anyone who doesn’t know the languages she is imitating, she could almost be a fluent speaker.Body language: Sara adopts the distinctive grin of a California girl as she mimics the U.S. accent'I don't even know': Nineteen-year-old Sara, who doesn't give her surname, says that her video is just her 'goofing' around and cautions viewers not to take it too seriously

Body language: Sara adopts the distinctive grin of a California girl as she mimics the U.S. accent(left pic)

‘I don’t even know’: Nineteen-year-old Sara, who doesn’t give her surname, says that her video is just her ‘goofing’ around and cautions viewers not to take it too seriously(lright pic)

Her British accent is pure London youth, complete with a sprinkling of ‘innits’ and glottal stops in the place of her ‘tee’ consonants, while her American accent is reminiscent of California.

Like all the best mimics, she even replicates the body language of the cultures whose language she’s imitating.

Sara, who doesn’t give her surname, says that her video is just her ‘goofing’ around and cautions viewers not to take it too seriously.

Nevertheless some people appear to have taken offence.

In her defence, she writes: ‘I know some of them suck, but that’s kinda the point cus I don’t understand two sh**s of that particular language and thats why it sounds like jibberish to me.

‘Also, named one of them Pizza because I knew it was so bad, that if I had called it Italian i would’ve gotten my a*** crucified.’

She adds: ‘I’m not trying to speak any languages in this video. My point is only to bring out what the languages sound like to me’

The video was uploaded to YouTube on Monday and has quickly gone viral, racking up a phenomenal 4.75million views in just five days.

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The 20 Young Power Women In Africa 2013

Compiled with Farai Gundan

This generation of young African women is the most ambitious yet. They are eager to build industries, reform societies, save lives, rewrite history, and transform the continent.

Our annual “20 Young Power African Women” list illuminates the brightest stars and Africa’s most outstanding female game changers. We enlisted a group of young, professional African women to help identify the most innovative, courageous, daring and successful young women aged 45 and under. It is a subjective list, no doubt, but it’s the closest you will get to a definitive list.

Meet the 2013 class of 20 Young Power Women in Africa: the continent’s emerging power brokers, the Amazons to watch, and the custodians of tomorrow.

Isabel Dos SantosAngolan. Investor.

The daughter of Angola’s President, Jose Eduardo Dos Santos is Africa’s richest woman. She is also one of the continent’s most powerful businesswomen. Through her various holding companies, she controls a 25% stake in Angolan mobile telecom operator Unitel, a 25% stake in Angola’s Banco BIC, 25% of ZON Optimus, a listed Portuguese cable TV company, and just under 20% of Banco BPI, one of Portugal’s largest publicly traded banks. She is also partnering with Sonae, Portugal’s largest retailer, to launch 5 new food hypermarkets in Angola in 2014.

Mimi AlemayehouEthiopian. Executive Vice President of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC)

In 2010 U.S President Barack Obama nominated Ethiopia-born Mimi Alemayehou as the Executive Vice President of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), the U.S. government’s development finance institution. She helps manage OPIC’s $16 billion war chest, channeling American capital to fund investment opportunities in emerging markets. Prior to her OPIC appointment, Alemayehou served as the United States Executive Director at the African Development Bank.

Vera SongweCameroonian. Country Director, World Bank, Senegal

Vera Songwe, a Cameroonian national, serves as the World Bank’s Country Director for Senegal, Cape Verde, Gambia, Mauritania and Guinea-Bissau. She is also a non-resident senior fellow at the Brookings Institute with the Global Economy and Development and Africa Growth Initiative.

Tara Fela-Durotoye Nigerian. Founder, House Of Tara

The Nigerian-born entrepreneur and lawyer is the founder of House Of Tara, Nigeria’s leading beauty and cosmetics company. House of Tara develops a wide range of African-themed beauty products and perfumes and also operates Nigeria’s foremost beauty academy. In 2013, Fela-Durotoye was nominated as a Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum.

Rapelang RabanaSouth African. Entrepreneur

One of Africa’s most recognizable young entrepreneurs. Rabana, 29, is the CEO and founder of Cape Town-based Yeigo Communications, which develops software for telecoms-related services including Voice over IP, Instant messaging, SMS messaging and push email services. In 2008, Telfree, a Swiss mobile telecommunications firm, acquired a 51% stake in Yeigo. In December 2012 she founded Rekindle Learning, a company that provides adaptive mobile learning solutions.

Claire AkamanziRwandan. Chief Operating Officer, Rwanda Development Board

Akamanzi, 34, is the Chief Operating Officer of the Rwandan Development Board (RDB), a government institution tasked with accelerating economic growth and development in Rwanda by enabling private sector growth. Akamanzi has had a successful career in public service, serving as Rwanda’s commercial diplomat in London and as a trade negotiator in Geneva for the Rwandan government at the World Trade Organization. She was also previously the Deputy Director-General of the Rwanda Investment and Export Promotion Agency (RIEPA).

Valentina da Luz GuebuzaMozambiquan. Investor

The 33 year-old daughter of Mozambique’s President Armando Guebuza heads Focus 21 Management & Development, a large family-owned investment holding company with interests in banking, telecommunications, fisheries, transport, mining and property. Focus 21 owns significant stakes in Beira Grain Terminal and Chinese Pay TV Company StarTimes’ operations in Mozambique.

Hadeel IbrahimSudanese. Mo Ibrahim Foundation

Hadeel Ibrahim is the daughter of Sudanese-born British mobile telecoms billionaire Mo Ibrahim. She is the founding Executive Director of the Mo Ibrahim Foundation, which was established in 2006 to support leadership and good governance in Africa. She also serves on the Boards of the Mary Robinson Foundation for Climate Justice and the African Governance Institute (AGI).

Alengot OromaitUgandan. Member Of Parliament

Proscovia Oromait, 20, is the youngest parliamentarian in Africa. In 2012 she was elected Member of Parliament for Usuk County, Katakwi District in Uganda. Her father, Michael Oromait, served as the MP for the same Parliamentary seat before his death in July 2012. She is a member of Uganda’s ruling National Resistance Movement party.

Monica MusondaZambian. Chief Executive Officer and Founder of Java Foods

Musonda is the founder of Java Foods, a Zambia-based food processing company that manufactures the eeZee brand of Instant NoodlesMusonda previously worked with Africa’s richest man, Aliko Dangote, as the director of legal and corporate affairs at Dangote Group, where she led a project to build a cement plant in Zambia. She currently serves on the Boards of Dangote Industries Zambia Limited and the Central Bank of Zambia. Musonda is also the Chairperson of Kwacha Pension Trust Fund, Zambia’s largest single employer pension fund. She is an Archbishop Desmond Tutu Leadership Fellow and was named a 2013 Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum.

Lindiwe MazibukoSouth African. Politician & Parliamentary Leader for Democratic Alliance (DA)

Mazibuko, age 33, is a Parliamentary Leader for the Democratic Alliance (MP for North Durban) and Leader of the Opposition in the National Assembly in South Africa. As the country’s fourth youngest parliamentarian, Mazibuko is already being touted as a  future leader of the Democratic Alliance. Mazibuko was named South Africa’s Most Influential Woman in 2012 and a Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum in 2013.

Minoush Abdel-MeguidEgyptian. Private Equity Investor, Entrepreneur, Investment Banker

The Egyptian-born investment banker is the co-founder of Union Capital, an Egyptian investment firm primarily focused on small and medium-sized enterprises.  Abdel-Meguid is also founding president of the Egyptian Young Bankers Association, an organization that mentors young banking professionals.

Ola OrekunrinNigerian. Medical Doctor & Founder, The Flying Doctors

Orekunrin, 25, is founder and Managing Director of Flying Doctors Nigeria Ltd., an air ambulance service based in Lagos, Nigeria. Orekunrin’s company is the first air ambulance service in West Africa to provide urgent helicopter, airplane ambulance and evacuation services for critically injured people. She is a 2013 New Voices Fellow at the Aspen Institute and was named a Young Global Leader in 2013 by the World Economic Forum.

Sibongile SamboSouth African. Chief Executive Officer and Founder of SRS Aviation

Sambo is the founder and Managing Director of SRS (Sibongile Rejoice Sambo) Aviation – the first black female owned aviation company in South Africa.  SRS is an integrated provider of private aviation services offering South African and international clients VIP Charter, tourist charter and helicopter services. The company also provides maintenance, sales and fleet management services to private jet owners.

Lupita Nyong’oKenyan. Actress and Filmmaker

Nyong’o is a Kenyan actress and filmmaker who made her Hollywood debut in acclaimed film director Steve McQueen’s “12 Years a Slave” as Patsey. Nyong’o was born in Mexico, raised in Kenya and educated in the U.S. She is a graduate of Yale University’s School of Drama. In 2009, the breakout actress was also the lead in MTV’s award-winning drama series, Shuga. Nyong’o’s cousin, Isis Nyong’o was named one of Forbes 20 Youngest Power Women in Africa in 2011. Another cousin, Tavia Nyong’o, is a professor at NYU’s Tisch School of the Arts.

Amini KajunjuDemocratic Republic of Congo. President & CEO, Africa-America Institute

A native of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Amini Kajunju is the President & CEO of the Africa-America Institute, and the first African woman to serve at the helm of the oldest nonprofit organization of its kind in the United States. Kajunju joined the Africa-America Institute in October 2012 from the New York-based Workshop in Business Opportunities (WIBO) where she had served as Executive Director for 10 years. Under her leadership, Kajunju has bolstered the organization’s programming and served more entrepreneurs than any other institution of a similar size in New York City.

Folake Folarin-CokerNigerian. Fashion Designer

Coker is the founder of Tiffany Amber, one of Africa’s leading fashion labels. She is the first African-based designer to showcase for two consecutive seasons at New York Fashion Week. In 2009, she won Designer of the Year at African Fashion International in Johannesburg,  South Africa followed by Fashion Brand of the Year in 2011 at the Arise Fashion Week in Lagos, Nigeria.

NoViolet BulawayoZimbabwean. Author

Zimbabwean-born author NoViolet Bulawayo is the first Black African female and the first Zimbabwean to be shortlisted for the prestigious Man Booker prize for her debut novel “We Need New Names.  She is the author of the short story Hitting Budapest (2010), which won the 2011 Caine Prize for African Writing. NoViolet Bulawayo is currently a Stegner Fellow at Stanford University in California.

Wangechi MutuKenyan. Artist and Sculptor

Considered one of the most important contemporary African artists of recent years, Mutu’s first major solo exhibition in the U.S., Wangechi Mutu: A Fantastic Journey, opened at the Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina in March 2013.  Mutu’s work has achieved much global acclaim with exhibitions at museums and galleries worldwide including the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the Miami Art Museum, Tate Modern in London, the Studio Museum in Harlem in New York, Museum Kunstpalast in Düsseldorf, Germany the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris and. Her first solo exhibition at a major North American museum opened at the Art Gallery of Ontario in March 2010.

Angellah KariukiTanzanian. Politician

Kariuki, 37, is a Special seat Member of Tanzania’s Parliament and the country’s Deputy Minister for Justice and Constitutional Affairs.

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Can these jeans give you a bigger booty? Push-up design uses shading and pocket placement to create ‘more junk in the trunk’

Before and after: The specially designed pants, which are sold at a small New York retailer called Ivido Jeans, are the brainchild of Colombian business woman Ivis GonzalezBefore and after: The specially designed pants, which are sold at a small New York retailer called Ivido Jeans, are the brainchild of Colombian business woman Ivis Gonzalez

Before and after: The specially designed pants, which are sold at a small New York retailer called Ivido Jeans, are the brainchild of Colombian business woman Ivis Gonzalez

Instead of normal sizings, the pants come in fun, Latina dance-inspired names like Tango (size 2), Salsa (size 4) and Flamenco (size 10). The ‘plus-sizes’ are called Delicious, Sweet Delicious and Hot Delicious.

They come in various shades, from light blue to black, and range in price between $85 and $110 per pair.

According to customer Stefanie Cornell, who tried on the jeans for the news channel, the butt-lifting design is not just a gimmick.

‘When you put them on, it’s like stepping into a standing ovation. You can’t help but strut,’ she gushed.

Colombian spirit: Instead of normal sizings, the pants come in Latina dance-inspired names like Tango, Salsa and Flamenco (pictured: customers in their own jeans, before trying on Ivido's)Transformed: 'When you put them on, it's like stepping into a standing ovation. You can't help but strut,' gushed one shopper (pictured: the customers in Ivido jeans)

Colombian spirit: Instead of normal sizings, the pants come in Latina dance-inspired names like Tango, Salsa and Flamenco (pictured: customers in their own jeans, before trying on Ivido’s)(left pic)

Transformed: ‘When you put them on, it’s like stepping into a standing ovation. You can’t help but strut,’ gushed one shopper (pictured: the customers in Ivido jeans)(right pic)

And another satisfied customer named Danae Dumontet claimed her own derriere grew by an incredible five sizes.

‘We at Ivido are here to help you incorporate some Latin flavor into your wardrobe’

Some of the jeans even come with a built-in girdle, for women who want to shrink their tummies while making their backsides look more pronounced.

The jeans are all made in Ms Gonzalez’s home country of Colombia, and the store owner tries to inject her own Latina sensibility into the brand in other ways as well.

Feminine curves: 'In South America we really celebrate our bum,' said Ms Gonzalez. 'It's not about being skinny. It's just to wear the right thing for your body and feel like a woman'

Feminine curves: ‘In South America we really celebrate our bum,’ said Ms Gonzalez. ‘It’s not about being skinny. It’s just to wear the right thing for your body and feel like a woman’

Fun spot: On Tuesdays, the store (pictured) - which is located on West Broadway - hosts salsa dancing classes for customers who want to shake their perky assets in the jeans

Fun spot: On Tuesdays, the store (pictured) – which is located on West Broadway – hosts salsa dancing classes for customers who want to shake their perky assets in the jeans

On Tuesdays, for instance, the store – which is located on West Broadway – hosts salsa dancing classes for customers who want to shake their perky assets in the jeans.

‘That is why the Ivido brand was conceived,’ Ms Gonzalez writes on her website.

‘To showcase the unique harmony and sensuality that every woman’s body possesses, irrespective of their size or weight.

‘We at Ivido are here to help you incorporate some Latin flavor into your wardrobe,’ she adds.

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Would YOU have an E-spot implant? Scientists build orgasm machine that delivers a climax at the push of a button

While some women can enjoy multiple orgasms a day, others can struggle to hit the spot.

Now a machine that claims to deliver an orgasm at the push of a button has been patented in the U.S., but in order to tap into such convenient pleasure, there is some pain.

The machine is designed to be a medical implant and includes an implant a little smaller than a packet of cigarettes, requiring an operation. It uses electrodes to trigger an orgasm.

Its creator hopes the box of tricks could be used to treat women with orgasmic dysfunction.

Jim Pfaus, who studies the neurobiology of sexual behaviour at Concordia University in Montreal told New Scientist: ‘Some women confuse what’s called sympathetic arousal, like increased heart rate, clammy hands, nerves and so on, with fear. That makes them want to get out of the situation.’

While Psychotherapy is a common treatment, the implant could ‘solve’ the condition using a more manual approach.

A patient would remain conscious during an operation to fit the implant, where a surgeon will pinpoint the correct nerves to which to fit the electrodes in a patient’s spinal cord.

They would connect to a signal generator – just smaller than a packet of cigarettes – that could be implanted under the skin of a patient’s buttocks.

HOW COULD THE IMPLANT WORK?

A remote control could be used by an individual to send a signal to the implant.

It would stimulate nerves with electrical pulses to trigger an orgasm.

Contacts would have to be surgically inserted into certain nerves in the spinal cord.

A signal generator would also have to be fitted under a patient’s skin – possibly in their buttocks.

The idea is that the implant could be triggered by a hand-held remote control, delivering orgasms at the push of a button – and it could even be programmed to deliver a number of orgasms per week or per day.

A patient would remain conscious during an operation to fit the implant, where a surgeon will pinpoint the correct nerves to which to fit the electrodes in a patient's spinal cord (illustrated)

A patient would remain conscious during an operation to fit the implant, where a surgeon will pinpoint the correct nerves to which to fit the electrodes in a patient’s spinal cord (illustrated)

But details have yet to be decided and clinical trials are set to begin later this year.

Stuart Meloy, a surgeon at Piedmont Anaesthesia and Pain Consultants in Winston-Salem, North Carolina is behind the technology and came up with the idea by accident.

‘I was placing the electrodes and suddenly the woman started exclaiming emphatically,’ he said.

‘I asked her what was up and she said, “You’re going to have to teach my husband to do that.”’

Mr Meloy has not yet tested the device on men, but said there is no reason to think that it could not be used to achieve the same result.

A Minneapolis-based company called Medtronic is set to conduct the medical trials but Mr Meloy said that the treatment is intended to be used in the most serious cases of orgasmic dysfunction because it is as invasive as a pacemaker.

However, Dr Pfaus said that as teenagers currently endure painful operations to enlarge their breasts, they are likely to endure invasive surgery to reach orgasm more easily.

A surgical implant could be triggered by a hand-held remote control, delivering orgasms at the push of a button (illustrated) and it could even be programmed to deliver a number of orgasms per week or per day

A surgical implant could be triggered by a hand-held remote control, delivering orgasms at the push of a button (illustrated) and it could even be programmed to deliver a number of orgasms per week or per day

WHAT IS ORGASMIC DYSFUNCTION?

Orgasmic dysfunction is when a woman either can’t reach orgasm, or has difficulty reaching orgasm when she is sexually excited.

Around 10 to 15 per cent of women have never had an orgasm.

Surveys suggest that between 33 per cent and 50 per cent of women are dissatisfied with how often the reach orgasm, according to Medline Plus.

Current treatments include: cognitive behavioural therapy and practical education.

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Is Breast-Feeding Really Better?

Researchers at Ohio State University compared 1,773 sibling pairs, one of whom had been breast-fed and one bottle-fed, on 11 measures of health and intellectual competency. The children ranged in age from 4 to 14 years.

The researchers recorded various health and behavioral outcomes in the sibling pairs, including body mass index, obesity, asthma, hyperactivity, reading comprehension, math ability and memory-based intelligence. The study, published online in Social Science & Medicine, found no statistically significant differences between the breast-fed and bottle-fed siblings on any of these measures.

By studying “discordant” siblings — one of whom had been breast-fed and the other not — the authors sought to minimize the possibility that racial, socioeconomic, educational or other differences between families could affect the results. Many earlier studies on breast-feeding failed to control for such factors, they say.

Campaigns to increase the rate of breast-feeding have been highly successful in recent years. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about three-quarters of American mothers now breast-feed, compared with less than two-thirds in 2000, and about 49 percent are still breast-feeding at six months, compared with 34 percent in 2000.

Yet despite this increase, researchers have consistently found large socioeconomic and racial disparities in breast-feeding rates. A C.D.C. survey in 2008 found that 75 percent of white infants and 59 percent of black infants were ever breast-fed, and in 2013, the agency reported that 47 percent of white babies but only 30 percent of black babies were still being breast-fed at 6 months. Compared with bottle-fed infants, breast-fed babies are more likely to be born into families with higher incomes, have parents with higher educational attainments, and live in safer neighborhoods with easier access to health care services.

Still, sibling studies such as this latest one do not solve all the problems of bias. “We were not able to control for everything that could affect what would make a mom breast-feed one child and not the other,” said the lead author, Cynthia G. Colen, an assistant professor of sociology at Ohio State. “But we did control for premature birth, birth order, the age of the mother, and whether she was working when she had one infant and not when she had the other.”

Geoff Der, a statistician at the University of Glasgow who has worked with the same data in previous studies, said that the findings in the present study were robust and the authors’ method for eliminating selection bias was powerful. He had reassuring words for women who do not or cannot breast-feed.

“In a society with a clean water supply and modern formulas,” he said, “a woman who isn’t able to breast-feed shouldn’t be feeling guilty, and the likelihood that there’s any harm to the baby is pretty slim.”

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Injections Providing Protection Against AIDS in Monkeys, Studies Find

BOSTON — Researchers are reporting that injections of long-lasting AIDS drugs protected monkeys for weeks against infection, a finding that could lead to a major breakthrough in preventing the disease in humans.

Two studies by different laboratory groups each found 100 percent protection in monkeys that got monthly injections of antiretroviral drugs, and there was evidence that a single shot every three months might work just as well.

If the findings can be replicated in humans, they have the potential to overcome a major problem in AIDS prevention: that many people fail to take their antiretroviral pills regularly.

A preliminary human trial is to start late this year, said Dr. Wafaa El-Sadr, an AIDS expert at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health, but a larger trial that could lead to a treatment in humans may still be some years away.

It has been known since 2010 that healthy people taking a small daily dose of antiretroviral drugs — a procedure known as pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PreP (pronounced prep) — can achieve better than 90 percent protection against infection.

Photo

Dr. Ho’s team tested 16 monkeys with rectal washes of the virus that causes AIDS. All the injected monkeys were protected.CreditOzier Muhammad/The New York Times

But in several clinical trials since then in gay men, in intravenous drug users and in couples where one partner is infected, it has been shown that the only participants protected were those who took their pills every day without fail. Many did not.

The failure rate was particularly acute among women in Africa. Although some participants in one PreP study told researchers that they were scared by rumors about side effects, many also said they were afraid to keep the pills in their home because their sexual partner or a neighbor might see them and mistakenly assume they already had the disease.

An intramuscular injection that a woman could get every three months could change all that, several AIDS experts said.

In Africa and elsewhere in the developing world, many women already receive shots of long-lasting birth control hormones like Depo-Provera, preferring them to daily pills, which might anger spouses or boyfriends who find them.

About the injection protocol tested in monkeys, Dr. David Ho, director of the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center at Rockefeller University and an author of one of the studies, said the popularity of Depo-Provera was “a good analogy for how it might work in developing countries.”

In the other study, conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, six female monkeys were given monthly injections of GSK744, an experimental drug that is a long-lasting form of an antiretroviral drug already approved for H.I.V. treatment by the Food and Drug Administration.

Six other monkeys got a placebo.

Twice a week, liquid containing human-simian immunodeficiency virus, a hybrid human-monkey version of the virus that causes AIDS, was pumped into their vaginas, simulating sex with an infected monkey.

None of the monkeys protected by GSK744 became infected. All six who got the placebo were infected quickly.

The Rockefeller researchers did a similar experiment with 16 monkeys using the same drug. They got rectal washes of the virus, imitating anal sex.

The results were the same: All the monkeys that got the drug were protected, compared with none of the monkeys that did not get it.

Dr. Ho’s team also tested to see how much of the drug had to be in a monkey’s blood and tissue to be protective. They found that an amount large enough to protect was “eminently achievable in humans with a quarterly injection,” Dr. Ho said.

The studies were presented here on Tuesday at the annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections.

Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, director of the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, called the results “very impressive for something in the animal model..

Mitchell J. Warren, executive director of AVAC, an organization lobbying for AIDS prevention and treatment, said a long-acting injectable drug “is clearly the place to go because adherence has been the Achilles’ heel of PreP.”

But he argued that people at risk of H.I.V. infection would eventually need several options, just as women seeking birth control want to be able to choose among pills and other options.

A similar experimental drug known as TMC278 was tested in monkeys several years ago and also protected them, although the study was not identical to the two released Tuesday.

But little attention was paid then “because people were focused on other things,” Mr. Warren said.

 

The human trial expected to start later this year will be small, enrolling only 175 people in the United States, South Africa, Malawi and Brazil. Dr. El-Sadr, of Columbia, said the study should take up to three years before a larger trial to see if the injection method works in people as effectively as it does in monkeys.

Human trials take time and require huge numbers of participants, partly because it is unethical to conduct a trial without offering participants all the options approved, including condoms and the pill versions of PreP.

“You know some people are going to say they want them and then will end up not using them,” Mr. Warren said. “But you still have to offer them.”

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Nigeria: Local languages fight for survival

Dozens of local languages in Nigeria are under threat because of neglect and outside influences, it’s been reported.

Of Nigeria’s 529 official languages, 62 are “in trouble” or “dying”, the Lagos-based Guardian newspaper reports. Up to 200 Nigerian languages may be at risk in the future, the paper says.

Nigeria is one of the most linguistically diverse countries on earth, says Kole Omotoso, a professor at Adekunle Ajasin University. But many children don’t learn their mother-tongues, so languages need to be protected and more widely taught in order to survive. “Nigerian languages remain very poorly researched compared with indigenous languages in Europe, the Americas and Australias,” he adds.

Nigeria is dominated by three major languages: Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba, with English also used to maintain the country’s unity amid a diverse cultural mix. Linguistics expert Samuel Aje notes that language also “defines the customs and traditions of the people… and its neglect has contributed to the struggle being faced by many African countries.”

Officials have proposed caps on international TV and radio programmes, saying unlimited foreign coverage would “take its toll on our local languages, where people will no more be proud of what is Nigerian,” the head of one national cultural group told the paper.

Endangered minority languages are not just a Nigerian problem. Unesco says half the world’s 6,000 languages could disappear by the end of the century unless steps are taken to preserve and encourage their use.

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Lupita Nyong’o Has Worn Every Color Of The Rainbow

Power to all dark-skinned girls everywhere!

By Sandra Pineda..PHOTO : PINTEREST

Lupita Nyong'o Has Worn Every Color Of The Rainbow

Many dark-skinned girls think that they can’t get away with wearing color, because neon brights tend to overpower one’s complexion.

TOTALLY NOT THE CASE. Considering Lupita has worn every color of the freakin’ rainbow.

So next time y’all think about reaching for something that comes in black, white, or grey in your closet, remember Lupita…

And work those neon brights like it’s nobody’s business.

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No sex please, we’re parents! Love life stops FOREVER for one in four couples after birth of child

After giving birth, thoughts turn to baby names, breastfeeding bras and a future of sleepless nights.

Sex, it appears, is the last thing on a couple’s mind after having a baby, with one in four new parents giving up sex forever after the arrival of their firstborn.

In a recent survey, new parents revealed that sex became the ‘elephant in the room’.

One in five men say they have difficulties even raising the idea of sex with their partner after the birth of a child.

Women are even more nervous about the subject than men, with 44 per cent raising concerns.

Pain and soreness during sex was a preoccupation for 38 per cent of women and over a third were worried that sex may not be as enjoyable as before.

Awkward: One in five men express difficulties initiating sex with their partnerShould we? Shouldn't we? Pain and soreness during sex was a preoccupation for 38 per cent of women and over a third were worried that sex may not be as enjoyable as before
Awkward: One in five men express difficulties initiating sex with their partner                                                    Should we? Shouldn’t we? Pain and soreness during sex was a preoccupation for 38 per cent of women and over a

third were worried that sex may not be as enjoyable as before

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Girl power! Record number of female billionaires as 172 women make Forbes list

The old boy’s club better learn how to talk to girls, as there are now more female billionaires than ever. A record 172 women made this year’s Forbes magazine billionaires list, up 25 per cent from last year.

Forty-two of the 268 newcomers to the list are women, including Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg.

Sandberg became extra-wealthy when her 12 million shares in Facebook stock jumped 130 per cent last year. But she’s also known outside the social network for writing ‘Lean In’ – a manifesto for women seeking success in the male-dominated corporate world.

Earning her spot: Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg, 44, is one of the youngest self-made billionaire women and a new entry onto this year's lis. She also penned 'Lean In' - a manifesto for women working their way up the corporate ladder (left)Earning her spot: Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg, 44, is one of the youngest self-made billionaire women and a new entry onto this year's lis. She also penned 'Lean In' - a manifesto for women working their way up the corporate ladder (left)

Earning her spot: Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg, 44, is one of the youngest self-made billionaire women. She also penned ‘Lean In’ – a manifesto for women working their way up the corporate ladder (left)

Also new on the list is Folorunsho Alakija, who became Nigeria’s first female billionaire after striking it rich with an oil business.

Alakija was joined on the list by 46-year-old British gambling magnate Denise Coates, who started Bet365 and is worth $1.6billion.

Sanberg, Alakija and Coates are three of five newcomers to the list – and just 32 of the total 172 female billionaires – who are self-made.

Self-made: British betting company founder Denise Coates is one of five of the 42 female newcomers who made her fortune herself

Self-made: British betting company founder Denise Coates is one of five of the 42 female newcomers who made her fortune herself

The rest either inherited their wealth from a parent or husband, proving women still have a long way to go before they share equal wealth and power with men.

Altogether, women make up just under 10 per cent of the total 1,645 billionaires on the list.

Estee Lauder’s granddaughters are also new additions, thanks mostly to their inherited make-up empire fortunes.

Jane Lauder is expected to take over control of Clinique in April while her sister Aerin Lauder Zinterhofer runs her own lifestyle brand.

Sisters Jane Lauder (left) and Aerin Lauder Zinthoder (right) were also new additions to this year's list, thanks to the fortune they inherited from make-up mogul grandmother Estee LauderSisters Jane Lauder (left) and Aerin Lauder Zinthoder (right) were also new additions to this year's list, thanks to the fortune they inherited from make-up mogul grandmother Estee Lauder

Sisters Jane Lauder (left) and Aerin Lauder Zinterhofer (right) were also new additions to this year’s list, thanks to the fortune they inherited from make-up mogul grandmother Estee Lauder

Only one woman made it into the top 10, veteran billionaire Christy Walton who is worth $36.7billion thanks to inheriting part of the Wal-Mart family fortune when her husband, founder Sam Walton’s son John T. Walton, died.

Other female veterans who made it onto the list again include Oprah, Spanx creator Sara Blakely, Tory Burch, and Steve Jobs’ widow Laurene Powell Jobs.

Bill Gates became the richest man in the world again with his $76billion fortune earned for starting Microsoft.

The richest woman in the world: Only one woman made it onto the top 10 of the list, Wal-Mart heiress Christy WaltonThe woman behind the Apple founder: Steve Jobs' widow Laurene Powell Jobs made it back onto this years' list with her $14billion fortune

The richest woman in the world: Only one woman made it onto the top 10 of the list, Wal-Mart heiress Christy Walton(Left)..  The woman behind the Apple founder: Steve Jobs’ widow Laurene Powell Jobs made it back onto this years’ list with her $14billion fortune(Right)

Fashion: Other veterans on the list include fashion magnet Tory Burch (left) and Spanx creator Sara Blakely (right)Fashion: Other veterans on the list include fashion magnet Tory Burch (left) and Spanx creator Sara Blakely (right)
Fashion: Other veterans on the list include fashion magnet Tory Burch (left) and Spanx creator Sara Blakely (right)

Television hit-maker: Oprah came it at number number 580 of the total 1645 billionaires on the list
Television hit-maker: Oprah came it at number number 580 of the total 1645 billionaires on the list

WORLD’S YOUNGEST BILLIONAIRE IS MYSTERIOUS UNIVERSITY OF LONDON GRADUATE WHO MADE FORTUNE INVESTING IN CHINESE REAL ESTATE

The youngest billionaire in the world is also a woman.

24-year-old Perenna Kei became China’s newest billionaire in December when Logan Property Holdings went public on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.

Kei has an 85 per cent stake in the company, more than her 47-year-old father Ji Haipeng who is chairman.

Her stake in the company is operated through a trust, which her father is excluded from – explaining her monumental rise.

Rapidly expanding: Kei owns an 85 per cent stake in Chinese real estate company Logan Property Holdings. Above, one of Logan's apartment complexes in the southern Chinese city of Shenzhen - where they are headquartered
Rapidly expanding: Kei owns an 85 per cent stake in Chinese real estate company Logan Property Holdings. Above, one of Logan’s apartment complexes in the southern Chinese city of Shenzhen – where they are headquartered

According to the Forbes, she is worth $1.3billion which brings her in at number 1,284 of the 1,645 billionaires on the list.

She is the 37th richest person on the Hing Kong list.

But the world’s youngest billionaire remains mostly a mystery besides the fact that she graduated with an economics and finance degree from the University of London and is unmarried.

According to the company’s prospectus, Kei’s full name is Kei Perenna Hoi Ting, but she has also gone by Ji Peili in the past.

The Chinese elite are famous for going by other names in order to keep their wealth private.

She is currently a non-executive director at the Shenzhen, China-based company which made 6.6billion yuan in 2012.

Gates held the title of ‘richest man in the world’ for 15 out of the past 20 years, but he was succeeded- briefly- by Mexican telecommunications magnate Carlos Slim Helu for the past four years.

Gates, who now spends most of his time in philanthropy, earned his spot back as his net worth increased by $9billion to $76billion after Microsoft’s stock had a promising year, putting him ahead of Slim Helu who came in at $72billion.

Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg made the most money in the world over the past 12 months, according to the Forbes report, and his net worth nearly doubled, going from 2013’s estimate of $15.2billion to $28.5billion as a result of the social network’s increasing share price.

Back at the top: Bill Gates was the 'richest man in the world' for 15 out of the past 20 years but was dethroned briefly by Mexican telecommunications magnate Carlos Slim up until nowGoing up: Mark Zuckerberg's net worth nearly doubled to $28.5billion since Facebook's share price is now up 130 per cent over the past year

Back at the top: Bill Gates was the ‘richest man in the world’ for 15 out of the past 20 years but was dethroned briefly by Mexican telecommunications magnate Carlos Slim up until now(Left) Going up: Mark Zuckerberg’s net worth nearly doubled to $28.5billion since Facebook’s share price is now up 130 per cent over the past year(Right)

THE WORLD’S RICHEST WOMEN..

  • Spanx founder Sara Blakely is one of the world's richest women after launching her underwear brand at the age of 29Spanx founder Sara Blakely is one of the world’s richest women after launching her underwear brand at the age of 29

    Number 9: Christy Walton – At the top, and the only woman to make it into the top 10, Christy Walton is worth $36.7billion thanks to inheriting part of the Wal-Mart family fortune when her husband, founder Sam Walton’s son John T. Walton, died.

  • Number 11: Liliane Bettencourt – In second place, and worth $34.5billion, the L’Oreal heiress remains France’s richest person. The 91-year-old’s fortune increased this year as the company’s stock surged. She gave up directly running the business years ago.
  • Number 13: Alice Walton – The third richest woman is another Walton family member, worth $34.3billion. The daughter of visionary retailer Sam Walton, she is Christy’s sister-in-law.She opened her Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art in Bentonville, Arkansas in 2011, featuring works from her own private collection
  • Number 46: Gina Rinehart – In fourth place, Gina Rinehart, is an Australian mining heiress, worth $17.7billion. The billionairess has tumbled 10 places in this year’s list, despite seeing her wealth increase. In 2011, the boom in the mining industry dramatically increased the size of her wealth, leading many to speculate she could have claimed the top spot as the world’s richest person.
  • Granddaughters of Estee Lauder, Aerin Lauder and Jane LauderGranddaughters of Estee Lauder, Aerin Lauder and Jane Lauder

    Number 49: Susanne Klatten – The world’s fifth richest woman is Germany’s wealthiest female, Susanne Klatten, estimated to be worth $17.4billion. She inherited a 12.6 per cent share in BMW from her late father Herbert Quandt. Together with her brother and mother, the family own a 50 per cent share of the automobile company.

  • Number 73: Laurene Powell Jobs – Steve Jobs’ widow is the largest individual stakeholder in Disney, making her shares in the company three times more valuable than her Apple shares – the company co-founded and and run by her husband until his death in October 2011.
  • Number 580 – Oprah Winfrey – The TV star, worth $2.9billion, turned 60 in January but has not let that get in the way of her career, refusing to slow down. She is the only African-American billionaire on the Forbes list.
  • Number 687: Folorunsho Alakija – Nigeria’s first female billionaire, is estimated to be worth $2.5billion after striking it rich with an oil business.
  • Number 1092: Denise Coates –  The 46-year-old British gambling magnate Denise Coates, who started Bet365 and is worth $1.6billion
  • Number 1442: Jane Lauder -Estee Lauder’s granddaughters are also new additions, thanks
    Fashion mogel Tory Burch is ranked number 1565 in the Forbes rich list

    Fashion mogel Tory Burch is ranked number 1565 in the Forbes rich list

    mostly to their inherited make-up empire fortunes. Jane Lauder, worth $1.15billion, is expected to take over control of Clinique in April.

  • Number 1465: Aerin Lauder Zinterhofer – Sister of Jane Lauder, Aerin runs her own lifestyle brand and is worth an estimated $1.1billion.
  • Number 1565: Sara Blakely – The Spanx founder is worth $1billion. At 43 years old she is the world’s youngest self-made billionaire. She isn’t finished changing the way women look in their clothes, and is set to add super comfortable high-heels to her portfolio. The Forbes 2012 cover star has rolled out a series of Spanx, standalone stores, across America’s east coast. At the age of 29, Blakely invested her $5,000 savings into trying to design flattering underwear. Six months later she had founded the line that has made her her fortune, and retains complete control of the company.
  • Number 1565: Tory Burch – Sharing the same spot as Spanx founder, Tory Burch is also worth $1bililon. The fashion mogel joined the rich list this time last year, after a huge growth in her preppy womenswear brand. The designer owns a 28.3 per cent stake in the business, which has its flagship store in Beverley Hills’ Rodeo Drive.

50: Abigail Johnson – $17.3billion
58: Anne cox Chambers – $15.5billion
58: Iris Fontbona and family – $15.5billion
82: Johanna Quandt – $12.8b
102: Miuccia Prada – $11.1b
113: Charlene de Carvalho-Heineken – $10.4b
122: Carrie Perrodo and family – $10b
147: Elaine Marshall and family – $8.8b
153: Antonia Johnson – $8.5b
165: Margarita Louis-Dreyfus – $8.1b
168: Blair Parry-Okeden – $7.7b
196: Yang Huiyan – $6.9b
212: Eva Gonda de Rivera and family – $6.4b
212: Pansy Ho – £6.4b
215: Dannine Avara – $6.3b
215: Milane Frantz – $6.3b
215: Randa Williams – £6.3b
227: Sandra Ortega Mera and family – $6.1b
234: Chan Liawa and family – $6b
240: Gayle Cook – $5.8b
270: Maria Asuncion Aramburuzabala and family – $5.2b
278: Jacqueline Desmarais – $5.1b
278: Kirsten Rausing – $5.1b
295: Savitri Jindal and family – $4.9b
305: Pauline MacMillan Keinath – $4.8b
305: Ann Walton Kroenke – 44.8b
305: Gwendolyn Sontheim Meyer – $4.8b
305: Liselott Persson – $4.8b
319: Shari Arison – $4.7b
325: Diane Hendricks – $4.6b
328: Lynn Schusterman – $4.5b
340: Barbara Carlson Gage – $4.4b
340: Marilyn Carlson Nelson – $4.4b
354: Elizabeth Mohn and family – $4.2b
354: Friede Springer – $4.2b
367: Nancy Walton Laurie – $4.1

388: Martha Ingram and family – $3.9b
408: Isabel dos Santos – 3.7b
408: Karen Pritzker – $3.7b
408: Wu Yajun and family – $3.7b
408: Zhang Xin and family – $3.7b
430: Maria-Elisabeth Schaeffler – $3.6b
446: Yvonne Bauer and family – $3.5b
446: Rosa Anna Magno Garavoglia and family – $3.5b
466: Tamara Gustavson and family – $3.4b
466: Daniela Herz – $3.4b
466: Ronda Stryker – $3.4b
483: Doris Fisher – $3.3b
483: Renate Reimann-Haas – $3.3b
506: Heidi Horten – $3.2b
506: Marianne Liebmann – $3.2b
520: Judy Faulkner – $3.1b
520: Maria Helena Moraes Scripilliti – $3.1b
551: Imogene Powers Johnson – $3b
551: Helen Johnson-Leipold -$3b
551: Winnie Johnson-Marquart – $3b
580: Giuliana Benetton – $2.9b
580: Rahel Blocher – $2.9b
580: Josephine Louis and family – $2.9b
580: Magdalena Martullo-Blocher – $2.9b
580: Oprah Winfrey – $2.9b
609: Angela Leong – $2.8b
609: Mary Alice Dorrance Malone – $2.8b
609: Alexandra Schorghber – $2.8b
609: Joan Tisch – $2.8b
642: Marie Besnier Beauvalot – $2.7b
642: Eva Maria Bucher-Haefner – $2.7b
642: Dagmar Dolby and family – $2.7b
642: Hanni Toosbuy Kasprzak – $2.7b
642: Elaine Wynn – $2.7b
663: Maria Luisa Solari Falabella and family – $2.6b
663: Anita Zucker – $2.6b
687: Folorunsho Alakija – $2.5b
687: Patricia Matte – $2.5b
687: Madeleine Olsson Ericksson – $2.5b
731: Esther Grether and family – $2.4b
731: Ingeburg Herz – $2.4b
731: Maja Oeri – $2.4b
764: Indu Jain – $2.3b
764: Jean (Gigi) Pritzker – $2.3b
764: Penny Pritzker – $2.3b

796: Semahat Sevim Arsel – $2.2b
796: Rossana Camargo de Arruda Botelho – $2.2b

796: Renata de Camargo Nascimento – $2.2.b
796: Regina de Camargo Pires Oliveira Dias – $2.2b
828: Johnelle Hunt – £2.1b
828: Alicia Koplowitz: $2.1b
828: Helena Revordeo – $2.1b
828: Sylvia Stroher – $2.1b
869: Fiona Geminder – £2b
869: Catherine Lozick – $2b
869: Heloise Waislitz – $2b
869: Meg Whitman – $2b
931: Dulce Pugliese de Godoy Bueno – $1.9b
931: Pat Stryker – $1.9b
973: Suna Kirac – $1.85b
988: Elisabeth Badinter and family – $1.8b
988: Chen Jinxia – $1.8b
988: Chu Lam Yiu – $1.8b
988: Susan Hirt Hagen – $1.8b
988: Dinara Kulibaeva – $1.8b
988: Jennifer Pritzker – $1.8b
988: Linda Pritzker – £1.8b
988: Filiz Sahenk – $1.8b
1046: Lee Myung-Hee – $1.7b
1078: Bergit Douglas – $1.65b
1078: Julia Oetker – $1.65b
1078: Rosely Schweizer – $1.65b
1092: Pollyanna Chu – $1.6b
1092: Denise Coates – $1.6b
1092: Joyce Raley Teel – $1.6b
1143: Ana Maria Brescia Cafferta – $1.55b
1143: Rosa Brescia Cafferata – $1.55b
1143: Ana Maria Marcondes Penido Sant’Anna – $1.55b
1143: Ahsen Ozokur – $1.55b
1154: Maria Del Pino y Calvo-Sotelo – $1.5b
1154: He Qianov and family – $1.5b
1154: Monique Louis-Dreyfus – $1.5b
1154: Marie-Jeanne Meyer – $1.5b
1154: Erika Phol-Stroher – $1.5b
1203: Wilma Tisch: $1.45b
1210: Lina Maria Aguiar – $1.4b
1210: Els Blokker – $1.4b
1210: Hong Ra-Hee – $1.4b
1210: Lei Jufang – $1.4b
1210: Yoshiko Mori – $1.4b
1270: Patricia Angelini Rossi – $1.35b
1270: Anne Gittinger – $1.35b
1270: Lee Hwa-Kyung – $1.35b
1284: Perenna Kei and family – $1.3b
1284: Lee Boo-Jin – $1.3b
1284: Lily Safra – $1.3b
1284: Charlotte Colket Weber – $1.3b

1284: Charlotte Colket Weber – $1.3b
1284: Lilian Weninghaus – $1.3b
1372: Lia Maria Aguiar – $1.2b
1372: Carol Jenkins Barnett – $1.2b
1372: Benedicta Chamberlain – $1.2b
1372: Maria Ines de Lafuente Lacroze and family – $1.2b
1372: Xiu Li Hawken – $1.2b
1372: Dorothea Steinbruch – $1.2b
1372: Denise York – $1.2b
1442: Daisy Igel – $1.15b
1442: Jane Lauder – $1.15b
1442: Lee Seo-Hyun – $1.15b
1465: Miriam Blocher – $1.1b
1465: Ana Lucia de Mattos Barretto Villela – $1.1b
1465: Ilona Herlin – $1.1b
1465: Aerin Lauder Zinterhofer – $1.1b
1540: Cheung Yan – $1.05b
1540: Roberta Anamaria Civita – $1.05b
1540: Neide Helena de Moraes – $1.05b
1540: Deniz Sahenk – $1.05b
1540: Sheryl Sandberg – $1.05b
1540: Wang Laichun – $1.05b
1565: Elena Baturina – $1b
1565: Anne Beaufour – $1b
1565: Angela Bennett – $1b
1565: Sara Blakely – $1b
1656: Tory Burch – $1b
1565: Ina Chan – $1b
1565: Jeanine Dick – $1b
1565: Lam Fong Ngo – $1b
1565: Liu Xiaomeng – $1b
1565: Andrea Reimann-Ciardelli – $1b
1565: Monika Schoeller – $1b

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Singapore named the world’s most expensive city

Singapore has topped 131 cities globally to become the world’s most expensive city to live in 2014, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU).

The city’s strong currency combined with the high cost of running a car and soaring utility bills contributed to Singapore topping the list.

It is also the most expensive place in the world to buy clothes.

Singapore replaces Tokyo, which topped the list in 2013.

Other cities making up the top five most expensive cities to live in are Paris, Oslo, Zurich and Sydney, with Tokyo falling to sixth place.

The EIU’s Worldwide Cost of Living Survey is a relocation tool that uses New York city as a base. It looks at more than 400 individual prices.

Continue reading the main story

Top 5 most expensive cities

Sydney opera house
  1. Singapore, Singapore
  2. Paris, France
  3. Oslo, Norway
  4. Zurich, Switzerland
  5. Sydney, Australia

Soaring Asia

The top 10 cities this year have been dominated by Asian and Australasian cities as well as some in Europe.

“Improving sentiment in structurally expensive European cities combined with the continued rise of Asian hubs means that these two regions continue to supply most of the world’s most expensive cities,” said the editor of the report, Jon Copestake.

“But Asian cities also continue to make up many of the world’s cheapest, especially in the Indian subcontinent.”

Most Asian cities that top the list are there for predominantly higher costs of groceries. Tokyo is still at the top of the list for everyday food items.

Inexpensive India

However, not all Asian cities are tough on the wallet.

India’s major cities – including Mumbai and New Delhi – were found to be among the least expensive in the world.

Mumbai’s prices are kept low by large income inequality.

The low wages of many of the city’s workers keep spending low, and government subsidies have helped them stay that way.

Outside of the subcontinent, Damascus in Syria saw the largest drop, becoming the fourth cheapest city in the world as the country’s ongoing conflict has led to plummeting prices.

While the EIU’s survey takes into account the cost of living, other firms employ different research methods.

Mercer conducts research to determine the most expensive cities for expatriate living.

It found that in 2013, Luanda, Angola was the hardest on expatriate wallets due to the difficulty of finding adequate secure housing, and the high price of imported goods.

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The return of the female condom?

Its formal name was the FC1, though many of us knew it as the Femidom, or Reality, and jokers called it all sorts of names – plastic bag, windsock, hot air balloon…

Two decades on, Mary Ann Leeper has yet to see the funny side of such quips. “I so believed in that product,” she says. “I so believed that women would want to be able to take care of themselves. We were naive, or I certainly was naive.”

“Start Quote

Why would you make fun of a product that was going to help young women stay healthy?”

Mary Ann LeeperFemale Health Company

Leeper was the president of Chartex, the company that made the FC1. Before the launch, there was an atmosphere of curiosity and anticipation, but those involved underestimated just how unfamiliar the large, slippery device would look and feel to customers in Europe and the US.

Leeper traces the backlash to a single negative article in an influential US women’s glossy magazine.

“That story was the pivotal story that became like a domino effect,” she says. “It was a shock to me, to tell you the truth. Why would you make fun of a product that was going to help young women stay healthy, that was going to protect them from sexually transmitted infections as well as unintended pregnancy?”

The FC2 or Femidom

The FC2 is 17cm (6.5ins) long – the smaller ring is flexible for easy insertion

To be fair, the FC1 had something of a design flaw. Made of polyurethane, it was a bit noisy during sex, and it was inevitable that comic stories of rustling under the bedclothes would be told and re-told.

In the early years, Chartex’s successor, the Female Health Company, considered folding, but instead it set about developing an education programme. Then one day in 1995, Leeper received a telephone call from a woman called Daisy, responsible for Zimbabwe’s HIV and Aids programme.

“She said, ‘I have a petition here on my desk signed by 30,000 women demanding that we bring in the female condom,'” recalls Leeper.

It was the start of a set of partnerships that took the female condom to women in large parts of the developing world.

A hairdresser in Mozambique

Projects in Nigeria, Cameroon and Mozambique distribute female condoms via women’s hair salons, which sell them at a small mark-up, after explaining how they are used..

The FC1’s successor, the FC2 – made of non-rustling synthetic latex – is far more successful than many in the West realise. It is available in 138 countries, sales have more than doubled since 2007, and the Female Health Company has been turning a profit for eight years.

The vast majority of sales are to four customers – the US aid agency (USAID), the UN and the ministries of health in Brazil and South Africa. Donors and public health officials are keen on anything that gives women the upper hand in what they call “condom negotiation” with men.

Female condoms have other advantages too. They can be inserted hours before sex, meaning that there is no distraction at the crucial moment, and they don’t need to be removed immediately afterwards. For women, there is better protection from sexually transmitted infections, since the vulva is partially covered by an outer ring that keeps the device in place.

Female condoms v sliced bread

“Greatest invention since sliced bread, better than male condoms. It’s frustrating, that it’s not readily available everywhere…”

“My gf says it takes a little getting used to putting them in. But… they feel WAY better than a condom. :-)”

“My boyfriend and I both love the female condom… Downsides are the need for extra lube inside the condom and it is a bit more messy to clean up afterward compared to the male condom.”

“Added feeling when the ring hits. Enjoyed a lot. Hard to use at first, but once you get uses to it, it’s nice. Can be little embarrassing putting it in.”

Reviews of the FC2 from undercovercondoms.com

User feedback is also pretty good.

A 2011 survey found that 86% of women were interested in using the method again and 95% would recommend trying them to friends.

“Many people report that female condoms heighten sexual pleasure,” says Saskia Husken from the Universal Access to Female Condom Joint Program (UAFC). For men, they are less tight than male condoms. For women, the large ring of the condom – which remains outside the vagina – can also be stimulating.

In Africa, the free availability of female condoms at clinics has led to an unexpected fashion trend. Women have taken to removing the flexible ring from the device and using it as a bangle. “If you are [romantically] available you have a new bangle on,” says Marion Stevens from the female health campaigning body Wish Associates. “If you are in a long-term relationship your bangle is old and faded.”

A market demonstration of a female condom

A demonstration of the female condom in a marketplace in Nigeria

Meyiwa Ede, from the Society of Family Health in Nigeria, says that while men are often excited by the prospect of sex without having to wear a regular condom, women are taken aback by their first glimpse of the device.

“They look at it and say ‘OK – are you saying I have to put that in myself?'” she says.

Ede’s team of demonstrators use a mannequin to show the condom is inserted and compare the task to using a new phone – bewildering at first, but second nature after a while.

In most developed countries there is still that 20-year-old image problem to overcome.

“I think the issue is when you open the package they’re already open – they’re not like male condoms that are in these neat little packages and then they’re unrolled,” says Mags Beksinska from the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa. “In fact, they’re the same length as a male condom so if you hold the two together open, they’re not that different.”

The Woman's Condom, Cupid, VA WOW

Clockwise from top, the Woman’s Condom, Cupid and VA Wow

Beksinska is the lead author of a clinical trial recently published in the journal Lancet Global Health of three new models of female condom:

  • The Woman’s Condom, already available in China and soon to be distributed in South Africa, is the fruit of a 17-year project by Path – an NGO that specialises in health innovation – which has tested more than 50 versions. Out of the packet, it’s smaller than the FC2. It looks like a tampon, with most of the condom gathered into a rounded polyvinyl capsule, which dissolves inside the vagina. Once it has expanded, dots of foam help keep it in place.
  • The Cupid is available in India, South Africa and Brazil. It is vanilla scented and comes in pink or natural colours. It is currently the only model besides the FC2 to have been qualified by the World Health Organization (WHO) for public-sector purchase. A smaller version aimed at the Asian market is in trial.
  • The VA Wow, like the Cupid, contains a sponge which helps users to insert the condom and prevents it slipping.

The Lancet study, which showed that all were no less reliable than the FC2, improves their chances of gaining wide acceptance internationally.

Other radically redesigned female condoms are either available now, or will be soon.

Two female condoms from Innova Quality

Two female condoms from Innova Quality

The Air Condom, on sale in Colombia, features a little pocket of air to aid insertion.

Continue reading the main story

Mission: Condom

Danny Resnic
  • Danny Resnic contracted HIV because of a broken condom
  • A gay man, he says he lost all his friends to Aids in the 1980s
  • He has also redesigned the male condom – and the world’s first condom specifically for anal sex is now at the testing stage
  • It took Resnic 16 years to finalise the patent for his designs
  • The first stage of clinical tests on his female condom has cost $685,000 (£418,000)

The Panty Condom, made by the same Colombian manufacturer, Innova Quality, is packaged with a special pair of knickers, which keep the condom in place, though this product currently lacks a distributor.

Meanwhile, a female condom known as the Origami is about a year away from market launch in the US.

Its designer, Danny Resnic, who started to work in this area after contracting HIV because of a broken condom in 1993, paid close attention to the jokes about the FC1.

“There’s a reason it looks like a plastic bag – it isa plastic bag,” he says. “It’s putting a round peg into a different-shaped hole.”

His female condom is oval-shaped, which mirrors the female anatomy he says. It is packaged as a teat-shaped capsule (see image at the top of this story), and once inserted it expands like the bellows of a concertina. The outer ring of the condom is designed to sit flat against the labia, rather than dangling as some others do.

The Origami Condom, opened

“It’s an intimate product and a shared experience, for two people,” he says. “So our female condom is intended to be attractive for both men and women.”

Since the Origami condom is made from silicone, it has the added benefit of being reusable – it can be washed in a dishwasher.

Saskia Husken of UAFC says it’s important for couples to have a choice of products if the female condom is to achieve its potential.

“There is a need for variety,” says Husken. “Some women prefer one product and some prefer another, and men as well. We are not all the same..

Tampax: A hard sell

  • Tampax tampons were patented in 1933 and marketed to pharmacists, doctors and women
  • From 1941, an education department dispatched “Tampax Ladies” to department stores, schools and colleges
  • Despite all this, a 1943 survey found that three-quarters of doctors were “definitely opposed” to them

A 2010 study bears this out. Researchers asked 170 South African women to try out three different female condoms five times. After nine weeks, they could choose to stop the research or continue, using the female condom of their choice. Eighty-seven percent chose to continue, and by this time almost all of them had a definite preference (44% opted for the women’s condom, while 37% went for the FC2 and 19% for the VA Wow).

The fact that 20 years have passed and the female condom has not matched the success of the male condom – it still accounts for only 0.19% of global condom procurement, and costs about 10 times as much – does not dent the confidence of these entrepreneurs.

Mary Ann Leeper explains how she came to realise that it could be a very long game.

Several years after the disastrous launch of the FC1, a man from Tampax came to talk to her. He said it had taken not years but decades before doctors put their faith in tampons, and women stopped seeing them as weird and gross.

“He showed me the learning curve,” Leeper recalls.

“I said ‘Oh God, don’t tell me! Have I got to wait all this time? I don’t know if I can last that long!'”

But the female condom evangelists may yet have the last laugh.

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Can couples really get stuck together during sex?

It sounds like a scene from a trashy sex comedy. But stories of getting stuck during sex have been with us for centuries – and some of them might just be true.

An emergency trip to hospital is never pleasant, but it’s certainly not something you would want to happen after sex.

“It’s not the most romantic ending a couple can imagine,” says Dr Aristomenis Exadaktylos, author of a study of 11 years of admissions to his hospital in Bern, Switzerland.

He and his co-authors found plenty of patients who had experienced problems after sex – migraines, heart problems, even amnesia. But asked on the BBC’s Health Check radio programme if he had come across a case of the woman’s vagina clamping on to the man’s penis, he said “No” – and added that the idea was probably an urban myth.

Two listeners, however, wrote in to dispute this..

Dangerous Sex

  • About 0.1% of ER admissions to University Hospital Bern come about as a result of sex
  • Between 2000 and 2011 the hospital recorded 445 such cases
  • Of these, 308 cases (69%) were male
  • Most of the patients (78%) were younger than 40
  • A total of 276 (62%) had a possible infection
  • Fifty-five cases (12.4%) were neurological, including headache, amnesia and bleeding between the brain and skull
  • Two patients had cardiovascular emergencies and no penile fractures were recorded

Source: “Sexual activity-related emergency department admissions: eleven years of experience at a Swiss university hospital”, Journal of Emergency Medicine

“I must tell you it is no myth,” wrote one woman who asked to remain anonymous. “It happened to my late husband and myself one night. He literally could not withdraw i.e. was ‘stuck’. I attributed it to the intensity of the vaginal muscle response during orgasm.”

Another correspondent, who asked to be referred to simply as John, grew up near an airport in southern England. “I remember hearing a story when I was 14 or 15 about an American airman who got stuck inside a lady and they had to get an ambulance and get them to a hospital to get them parted,” he says. John eventually joined the merchant navy and started an on-off relationship with a woman in Japan.

On one occasion he and his partner were having “very enjoyable sex” when he suddenly found that he couldn’t withdraw. “Proceedings came to a halt and we decided that we’d better separate,” he recalls. It took two or three minutes of fumbling and laughing – the experience wasn’t painful for either of them.

John, who is now 75, has never before spoken about the incident and it was never repeated.

Dr John Dean, a senior UK-based sexual physician, says that both accounts are credible examples of a rare phenomenon that doctors sometimes call “penis captivus” (captive penis).

“When the penis is in the vagina it becomes increasingly engorged,” he says, giving his hypothesis of what causes the problem.

“The muscles of the woman’s pelvic floor contract rhythmically at orgasm. While those muscles contract the penis becomes stuck and further engorged.”

Finally the vaginal muscles relax, the blood flows out of the penis and the man can withdraw.

Many dog-owners will have seen their pets getting stuck during copulation, which breeders refer to as a “tie”. However, there are distinct anatomical reasons for this, according to Peggy Root, an expert in animal reproduction at the University of Minnesota. A dog’s penis has a compartment which fills with blood after intercourse has begun, effectively locking the male in place.

Dr Dean says that several of his patients have discussed with him their experience of getting stuck over the years, more out of curiosity than because it was a major problem. He draws a distinction between penis captivus and the more common and serious condition of vaginismus, in which a woman’s vaginal muscles contract involuntarily, preventing intercourse.

Two reviews of the history of penis captivus, published in 1935 and 1979, highlight the public’s longstanding fascination with it.

In 1372, Geoffrey de La Tour-Landry related how a voluptuary named Pers Lenard “delt fleshely with a woman” on top of an altar of a church, and God “tyed hem faste togedre dat night”. The following day the whole town saw the couple still entwined “fast like a dogge and biche togedre”. Finally prayers were spoken and the couple’s prolonged intercourse came to an end (although they were obliged to return to the church on three Sundays, strip naked and beat themselves in front of the congregation).

Mars and Venus caught in a net by Raphael Regius

Mars and Venus depicted by 16th Century artist Raphael Regius (Special Collections, University of Vermont)

Captivus features in several other medieval myths and stories, which F Kraupl Taylor, the author of the 1979 review, believes may bear “only a tenuous connection with the actual facts”.

He is similarly sceptical about an account from 1931 about an event in Warsaw in the 1920s, which ended with a double suicide. This time, penis captivus afflicted lovers trysting in a garden after closing time, and the couple were only separated when the woman was put under anaesthetic. But the real tragedy came after journalists – “in their greed for sensational facts” – published the story. “The next day two revolver shots put an end to the mental sufferings of the two lovers,” the story goes.

Continue reading the main story

Cold water cure

“When I was a student at Leyden there was a young Bridegroom in that Town that being overwanton with his Bride had so hamper’d himself in her Privities, that he could not draw his Yard forth, till Delmehorst the Physician unty’d the knot by casting cold Water on the Part.”

Isbrand van Diemerbroeck17th Century Dutch physician

In his 1908 book The Sexual Life of our Time, Iwan Bloch recounted another case of penis captivus following on from a furtive meeting, this time in a quiet corner of the docks in Bremen, Germany. The woman underwent an “involuntary spasm”, the man – a dock labourer – became trapped, and a great crowd gathered to watch. Eventually the couple were carted off to a hospital, chloroform was administered to the woman and they were freed.

In a 1933 manual of gynaecology, the author Walter Stoeckel speculated that penis captivus only affected couples engaged in illicit sex, the fear of detection presumably contributing to the force of the woman’s muscular spasm.

This opinion is no longer held by experts, but the narrative of a clandestine meeting followed by public humiliation continues. Recent media reports of penis captivus – in Kenya, Malawi, Zimbabwe and the Philippines – all concern adulterous couples.

Crowds watching the coupleA YouTube video showed crowds gathering around a house in Nairobi, where a couple were reportedly experiencing captivus

The Kenyan incident in 2012 supposedly occurred after the cuckolded husband paid a visit to a witch doctor. It was reported that the couple regained their liberty after prayers – and after the cheating man promised to pay the husband 20,000 Kenyan shillings (£140). He was filmed going to an ATM to withdraw the money.

The Zimbabwean media reported last year that a woman was bringing a law case against her long-term boyfriend for putting “runyoka” on her – a fidelity spell that caused her to get stuck on her lover. As one report put it, she was demanding compensation from the jealous boyfriend “for humiliating her and trying to control how she should use her private part”.

But there are several accounts of penis captivus taking place within a marriage, including two unsensational case studies from 19th Century German gynaecologists.

Perhaps the best verified example of the phenomenon also occurred during marriage. After the Kraupl Taylor review was published, the British Medical Journal received a letter from Dr Brendan Musgrave, recalling an incident in 1947, from his days as a house doctor at the Royal Isle of Wight County Hospital. “I can distinctly remember the ambulance drawing up and two young people, a honeymoon couple I believe, being carried on a single stretcher into the casualty department,” he wrote. This account was corroborated by another doctor who had been on duty at the time.

Dr John Dean says that he can’t explain this “very unusual” story, since people experiencing captivus generally have trouble disengaging for only a few seconds.

But he adds: “If you’re in that position, that probably feels like an eternity.”

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They’re already called ‘vertically challenged’ – but are short people intellectually challenged too?

They are already cursed with the rather unflattering label of ‘vertically challenged’.

Now experts say short people may also be intellectually challenged too – or at least in comparison to their taller counterparts.

A new study has found a link between IQ and height, suggesting that those who are shorter are on average more likely to be less intelligent.

Academics identified genes that influence both height and IQ, and said there was a ‘significant genetic correlation’ between the two factors.

The research, which covered more than 6,800 unrelated people, is the first to analyse DNA markers in such a way.

Riccardo Marioni, from Edinburgh University’s Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, said the link was small but important.

He said: ‘We tested whether DNA-based genetic similarities among people related to their similarities in height and intelligence.

‘Previous studies have used twin or family data to examine similarities between height and intelligence, whereas ours was the first to examine this using actual DNA markers in unrelated people.

‘What we found was a small association between height and intelligence such that people who are taller tend to be smarter.’

The claim is likely to be disputed by millions in Britain who fall short of the average height, 5ft 3in for women and 5ft 9in for men.

One is certain to be John Bercow, Speaker of the House of Commons, who at 5ft 5ins is dwarfed by his 5ft 11in wife, Sally.

But among those who appear to prove the theory is David Cameron, who is 6ft 1in is blessed with both height and intelligence.

Others include actress Kate Beckinsale, who studied French and Russian literature at Oxford and is fluent in both languages.

Stephen Fry, the host of QI, the puzzle-based television show, is 6ft 5in.

Marioni conducted his study in partnership with academics from Aberdeen University and University College London.

They based their findings on data compiled from thousands of people recruited for the Scottish Family Health Study between 2006 and 2011.

IQ was measured by tests which examined reaction times, powers of recall and linguistic ability.

In a paper submitted to Behavior Genetics journal, the team explained that about 70 per cent of the link can be explained by genetics and the rest by environmental influences.

They added: ‘We found a moderate and statistically significant genetic correlation between height and general intelligence.’

Proves the theory? QI presenter Stephen Fry is 6'5"Proves the theory? Prime Minister David Cameron is 6'1"

Prove the theory? QI presenter Stephen Fry (left) is 6’5″, and Prime Minister David Cameron (right) is 6’1″

It is hoped that revealing the genetic correlation between height and IQ could help predict a person’s health problems, the Sunday Times reported.

Previous studies have linked short stature to heightened risk of cardiovascular disease.

Higher IQ has been linked to longevity and a decreased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and suicide.

Previous studies have also claimed that short-man syndrome, known as the Napoleon complex, does exist.

Researchers at Oxford University recently found that feeling smaller makes people paranoid, distrustful and scared of others.

In fact, men of about 5ft 4in have been shown to be 50 per cent more likely to be jealous and distrustful of their partners than those measuring 6ft 6in.

Studies have also claimed smaller people are more likely than taller ones to have poor mental health.

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8 Ways to Strengthen Your Relationship

Love is perhaps our most powerful emotion, and the need to be in a loving relationship may be one of the strongest needs we have. Being in an intimate relationship makes us feel connected, not only to our partner, but also to the world at large. When our hearts are filled with love, we feel profoundly content and satisfied. We become more patient, more empathetic, kinder, gentler.

But personal intimacy doesn’t merely affect our emotional well-being. According to numerous scientific studies, the power of love directly affects our physical health, too, by boosting our immune system, improving our cardiovascular functioning, and increasing our life expectancy. “Love and intimacy are at the root of what makes us sick and what makes us well,” says Dean Ornish, M.D., who explores the connections between love and health in his book Love & Survival (HarperCollins). “When you look at the scientific data, the need for love and intimacy is as important and basic as eating, breathing, and sleeping.”

On Valentine’s Day, we celebrate our love for each other over candlelit dinners or through exchanges of chocolates, flowers, and slinky lingerie. But a box of bon-bons only lasts so long. Experts agree that the key to a vitalized, long-lasting relationship is what you and your partner do the other 364 days of the year. Indeed, keeping your love alive requires continual time and effort. Following are eight steps you can take to keep the flame burning.

1. Be Friends
Any healthy relationship must be based on a solid underlying friendship. Remember to treat your partner with the same kindness, respect, and appreciation as you would a close friend. Support, listen to, and laugh with each other. Don’t allow yourselves to be rude or disrespectful.

2. Stay Connected
“Couples need to spend a lot of time with each other,” advises David Kaplan, Ph.D., chair of the Department of Counselor Education and Rehabilitation programs at Emporia State University in Emporia, Kansas. “There is no substitute for quantity of time.” Kaplan encourages couples to take a half-day a week to go out on a date. In addition, devote at least 15 minutes of your day to meaningful, one-on-one conversation — no television or kids allowed.

3. Get Physical
Physical intimacy is a natural, and healthy, extension of a relationship. Our best sexual intentions are often put to rest, however, as we collapse into an exhausted heap at the end of the day. Instead, you and your partner need to consciouslycommit to turning up the heat. Leave the dishes in the sink, turn the laptop off, and just do it! Set the mood with the sensual music, and light some calming aromatherapy candles or incense. Learn to communicate your loving energy through touch.

4. Celebrate Each Other
Saying something kind and affectionate to your partner should be a daily habit. The expression of loving thoughts nourishes your relationship by helping you both remember what it is you treasure about each other. Let your partner know how much you appreciate him or her, and be generous with compliments and expressions of affection.

5. Fight Well
Since disagreements and arguments are inevitable, what’s important is notwhether you fight but how you fight. When disagreements surface, keep them short. “No more than 10 minutes,” says Kaplan. “After 10 minutes, it gets nasty and repetitive.” Also, keep boundaries on the subject matter. Don’t dredge up issues from last week or last month-keep your dispute focused on the matter at hand.

6. Take a Class
Feeling like your relationship could benefit from professional advice? Why not take a class on communications skills, attend a seminar on loving kindness, or read a book on relationship-building together? Your efforts will likely spark important discussions about your relationship and, ultimately, enhance it. A good starting point is Phillip McGraw, Ph.D.’s straight-talking tome Relationship Rescue(Hyperion, 2000).

7. Listen Carefully
Being an attentive listener lets your partner know that his or her thoughts and feelings are important to you. Moreover, good listening encourages partners “to open up and be willing to share,” say Richard and Kristine Carlson, authors of Don’t Sweat the Small Things in Love (Hyperion, 1999). The secret, say the Carlsons, is not just to “hear” what your partner is saying, but to be truly “present,” having a heartfelt desire to understand what is being said and listening without being judgmental.

8. Maintain Your Sense of Self
Partners must learn to balance their needs as individuals with their needs as a couple. “On one hand, you don’t want people to be too far apart emotionally. If you don’t spend time together, you become disengaged emotionally,” says Kaplan. “The other end of the spectrum is couples that become too dependent on each other and their individual identity gets lost.” Ideally, the two of you should be close enough to have intimacy, yet “far enough away to have individual identity,” says Kaplan. Don’t be afraid to develop some friendships and interests separate from your partner.

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60 ICONIC AND CLASSIC CARS..

1935 Duesenberg SJ LA Phaeton
Creative Commons License Photo credit: Wikipedia

1935 Duesenberg SJ LA Phaeton

Duesenberg was a luxury automobile company based in Auburn, Indiana, that was active from 1913 to 1937. Introduced in 1932, the supercharged Model J of their popular roadsters could achieve speeds of over 135 miles per hour. The car’s speed potential gave it legendary status in its time, and it is now looked upon as an automotive technological marvel.

1957 Corvette-Hugo90778
Creative Commons License Photo credit: Hugo90

1957 Corvette

The 1957 Chevrolet Corvette was the first Corvette model to feature four speed manual transmission and heavy duty breaks and suspension as options. The Corvette itself is one of the most iconic sports cars in existence, manufactured over six generations and sold in many parts of the world. Each generation features a variety of models with different features, making the Corvette brand name an expansive designation.

Sessão Fusca Conversà vel-Luciano Meirelles836
Creative Commons License Photo credit: Luciano Meirelles

Volkwagen Beetle

The Volkswagen Beetle is undoubtedly one of the most famous and influential cars ever made. Produced from 1938 to 2003, the Volkswagen Beetle is the longest-running and most-produced automobile of a single design in history. The Beetle’s success has been attributed to its eye-catching advertisements and its solid, durable design, and it has held the top-seller designation in many markets across the globe.

The Enzo-storem163
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Ferrari Enzo

The Ferrari Enzo, or the Enzo Ferrari, is a 12 cylinder mid-engine berlinetta named after the company’s founder. Built in 2002 using Formula One technology, the Ferrari Enzo is one of the most powerful naturally aspirated production cars. The car achieved third place on Sports Car International magazine’s “Top Sports Cars of the 2000s.”

Toyota XB Scion
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Toyota XB Scion

The Scion xB is a vehicle manufactured by Toyota specifically for its United States market and sold under its Scion brand, which is targeted toward younger drivers. The box-shaped five-door compact station wagon is geared for Generation Y drivers, those born between 1980 and 1994, because of the fact that there are 78 million of these on the roads or about to be on the road. Toyota also develops a Scion xA, which was expected to outsell the xB, but the xB has managed to outperform its older brother.

Aston Martin DB9 (#2)-buildscharacter433
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Aston Martin DB9

The Aston Martin D89 is a grand tourer that was released by Aston Martin in 2004. It was the first new car to be built at the company’s Gaydon facility, its name stemming from the initials of David Brown, an owner of Aston Martin for a significant period of time. The car has been especially well-received among car enthusiasts.

Carroll Shelby 427 Cobra-pdbreen487
Creative Commons License Photo credit: pdbreen

Shelby Cobra

The AC Cobra was a British sports car that was designed and built in the 1960s. American auto racer Carroll Shelby wrote a letter AC Cars and requested a car modified to accept an V8 engine, a move that set the way for the AC Shelby Cobra. Eventually, the Shelby Cobra would become a successful car in many racing circuits, even though it was not meant to race.

Lamborghini Countach-exfordy470
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Lamborghini Countach

The Lamborghini Countach was a mid-engine sports car produced by the iconic Italian automaker Lamborghini from 1974 to 1989. Its famous wedge-shaped, angular design became immediately popular and would be featured by many other popular sports cars for the decades to follow its introduction. The Countach is considered by many car enthusiasts to be among the finest sports cars in history.

mean machine-CoreForce320
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Dodge Viper

The Dodge Viper is a V10-powered sports car manufactured by the Dodge division of Chrysler LLC. Production of the Dodge Viper began in 1992 and since then it has become iconic of Dodge and of luxury sports cars in general. The Dodge Viper’s minimalist style, high performance, powerful engine, and strong styling have all made it an enduring classic among car enthusiasts.

Hummer in the Mud-TravOC120
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Hummer H1

The Hummer H1 is the civilian adaptation of the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV for short), created by AM General. Produced from 1992 to 2006, the Hummer H1 was the first in what would become the Hummer line. The most sought-after version of the Hummer H1 for collectors is the H1 Alpha, which was unveiled in 2006 and featured the best gas mileage and the most powerful engine of all the previous models.

Reliant Regal Supervan E3-sludgegulper132
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Reliant Robin

The Reliant Robin is a small three-wheeled car that is manufactured by the Reliant Motor Company of Tamworth, England. As it is a three-wheeled car with an official weight of less than a ton, the car can be driven in the UK with the equivalent to a class M license, a motorcycle license. This gives it considerable savings potential over a normal-sized car because of the taxing conventions in many countries.

Mercedes-Benz 300SL 2-Alan_D217
Creative Commons License Photo credit: wikipedia

Loremo LS

Loremo is a German automaker corporation that was founded in 2000, focused on designing and manufacturing cars with a low weight and little air resistance. The Loremo LS the base model of the turbodiesel, high-efficiency car that Loremo plans to introduce, compared to the sportier Loremo GT. According to the company, the Loremo LS will only produce 50 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer.

Cooter's Dukes of Hazard Museum-cliff1066â„¢135
Creative Commons License Photo credit: cliff1066â„¢

1968-1969 Dodge Charger

The Dodge Charger is a car manufactured by Chrysler under the Dodge brand name. Although there have been many different types of Dodge Chargers, the B-body Dodge Charger was the one that existed throughout the late 60s and most of the 70s. Based on the Chrysler B platform, the Dodge Charger could be ordered with high-performance options. The 1969 Dodge Charger “General Lee” was featured in the popular 80s TV series “The Dukes of Hazzard.”

IMG_4023-Simon Davison631
Creative Commons License Photo credit: Simon Davison

Rolls Royce Phantom

The Rolls Royce Phantom was the auto maker’s replacement for the original Silver Ghost. Constructed in both the United States and the United Kingdom, with time differences between the two, the Rolls-Royce Phantom featured a much-improved engine over the original Silver Ghost. For its time, the Rolls-Royce phantom featured state-of-the-art technology and variety of then-jaw-dropping features.

1950 Studebaker Commander-cstreet.us886
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Studebaker Commander

The Studebaker Commander is the model name of a long line of vehicles produced by South Bend, Indiana’s Studebaker Corporation from 1927 to 1964. The first Commander was world-renowned because of its strength and toughness even in the worst of conditions. The Commander name was briefly dropped by the company in the 1930s but was reinstated again later in the same decade, only to be dropped again about thirty years later.

Cadillac Eldorado 1959 red Rear-Michi1308583
Creative Commons License Photo credit: Michi1308Ghostbusters ECTO-1-chad davis901
Creative Commons License Photo credit: chad davis

1959 Cadillac Eldorado

The Cadillac Eldorado was part of the Cadillac line from 1953 to 2002, the longest-running American personal luxury car and the only one sold after the 1999 model year. While bodystyles and mechanical layouts varied dramatically throughout the history of the Eldorado, the car was always near the top of the Cadillac line. The Eldorado’s long and extensive history have made it one of the true legends of the sports car world. A Cadillac Eldorado ambulance was featured in the Ghostbusters movie.

Techart Tuned Porsche 911 Turbo-CarSpotter405
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Porsche 911

The Porsche 911 is a sportscar made by Porsche AG of Germany and it features one of the most famous and durable designs in auto history. Introduced in 1963, the car has undergone continuous development but has maintained the same basic design concept throughout its evolution. Both private teams and the factory itself have managed to modify the Porsche 911 for a variety of auto-related purposes, such as racing and rallying.

IMG_7032-Simon Davison686
Creative Commons License Photo credit: Simon Davison

Shelby Mustang Cobra

The Shelby Mustang Cobra is a high performance variant of the Ford Mustang that was built from 1968 to 1970. The car was originally meant to compete with the Corvette, a series modified by American racer Carroll Shelby’s company and given a special designation. Both cars, however, were notable because of the fact that they were more expensive to build than buyers were charged to purchase the vehicles.

Sessão Fusca Conversà vel-Luciano Meirelles836
Creative Commons License Photo credit: Wikipedia

1978 Pontiac Firebird Trans Am

The Pontiac Firebird is a car built by the Pontiac division of General Motors and produced from 1967 to 2002. Powered by V8 engines of a variety of GM divisions, Firebirds are primarily known for their characteristic “Coke bottle” stylings, and for the fact that they were not originally meant to be one of GM’s top sellers. The Pontiac Firebird will not return for a fifth-generation despite the fact that GM has revived the Chevrolet Camaro.

1983 Delorean DMC-12-dave_7221
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Delorean DMC 12

The DeLorean DMC-12 is a sports car that was manufactured in Northern Ireland to be sold in America from 1981 to 1982. The car is most commonly referred to as the DeLorean, as it was the only model ever produced by the company. The first prototype appeared in 1976 and 9,000 DeLoreans were produced by 1982, when production stopped. Today, only about 6,500 of these cars are believed to exist. This car is most well known for being used a time machine in the Back to the Future movies.

1932 Ford Roadster Leominster IMG_0154-omniNate306
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1932 Ford Roadster

The Ford Model B was a new Ford automobile that began production in 1932, a much-upgraded version of the Model A and the precursor to 1935’s Model 48. The Model Bs came in two versions: one with a four-cylinder engine and one with a V8 flathead. The latter version of the car had the distinction of being the first commercially successful example of a car featuring a V8 engine.

Car Show in Yoctangee Park-dok1831
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1955 Chevy Bel Air

The Chevrolet Bel Air is a full-size car produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors from 1950 to 1975. When the first Chevy Bel Airs were introduced in the 1950s, their styles were intentionally revolutionary and would establish many design conventions that were followed for several decades to come. The 1955 Chevy Bel Air is notable because it gained a V8 engine option, one that performed so well that remained in production for decades.

2003 Ford GT40Creative Commons License Photo credit: cliff1066

Ford GT40

The Ford GT40 was a high performance sports car that managed to win the 24 hours of Le Mans four times in a row, from 1966 to 1969. The car was originally built to win long-distance sports car races against Ferarri, the previous winner of the five Le Mans before the GT40’s winning streak. The car sprang from Henry Ford II’s long-standing desire to have a Ford sports car at Le Mans, a wish that was granted by the Ford GT40.

DSC00786.JPG-fogcat5671
Creative Commons License Photo credit: fogcat5

Tesla

Tesla Motors is a Silicon Valley startup automaker that focuses on developing and manufacturing electric vehicles and is currently the only automaker building and selling highway-capable electric vehicles. The Tesla Roaster is Tesla’s first production vehicle, an all-electric sports car with an average powering cost of $0.02 per mile. General production of the vehicle began in 2008.

DE HAAN: PACKARD 1937-Belgapixel's867
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1937 Packard

The 1937 Packard marked the presence of the first six-cylinder engine in what was, at the time, the premier luxury automobile. The introduction of the six-cylinder engine turned out to be an example of perfect timing, because of the 1938 recession. The car continued to be popular during World War II, despite the fact that Packard started to focus on producing airplane engines.

Mercedes-Benz 300SL 2-Alan_D217
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Mercedes Benz 300sl

The Mercedes-Benz 300SL was introduced in 1954 as a two-seat, closed sports car with the distinctive gull-wing doors, but it was later offered as an open roaster. The 300SL was the fastest production car of its day, making it very popular among contemporary speed demons. The car was based, albeit somewhat loosely, on Mercedes-Benz’s highly successful competition-only car of 1952.

curves for days-underwhelmer447
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Jaguar xk120

The Jaguar XK120 is a sportscar that was manufactured by Jaguar from 1948 to 1954. It was the company’s first postwar car, succeeding the SS 100 which halted production in 1940. Available in two convertible versions, the Jaguar XK120 was also very successful as a racecar and managed to set various world records in a span of three years.

Prius-RightFront-Beige Alert739
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Toyota Prius

The Toyota Prius is a full hybrid-electric mid-size car developed and manufactured by Toyota Motor Corporation. The car has been around since 1997, when it became available in Japan, which makes it the first mass-produced hybrid vehicle. The Prius was released worldwide in 2001, and it is now sold in more than 40 countries and regions worldwide, especially popular because of its enormous fuel efficiency.

MINI-Conor Keller | fortysixtyphoto.com89
Creative Commons License Photo credit: The Wong Family Pictures

Mini Cooper

The Mini Cooper is a small car produced by the British Motor Corporation and its successors from 1959 to 2000. The original version of the Mini Cooper is considered to be iconic of the 1960s, with its easily-recognizable design often said to have influenced an entire generation of automakers. It is also considered to be, in many ways, the British equivalent to the German Volkswagen Beetle, which was also very popular in the United States.

Chevy El Camino-aresauburnâ„¢882
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El Camino

The Chevrolet El Camino is a coupe utility vehicle produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors from 1959 to 1960, and then again from 1964 to 1987, originally manufactured in response to the success of the Ford Ranchero. In North America, the vehicle is classified as a truck, despite the fact that it wsa based on corresponding Chevrolet car lines. It has been rumored that GM may still bring back the El Camino.

Chevy El Camino-aresauburnâ„¢882
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Stout Scarab

The Stout Scarab was an automobile produced in small numbers by the Stout Engineering Laboratories of Detroit, Michigan, throughout the 1930s. In addition to many other technological and engineering distinctions, the Stout Scarab is considered to be the very first production minivan in the world. During its time, the Stout Scarab was dramatically different from any other car on the market and featured the most spacious interior of any American vehicle.

1935 Pierce Arrow 845 V12 Silver Arrow Coupe-| El Caganer757
Creative Commons License Photo credit: | El Caganer1935 Pierce Arrow 845 V12 Silver Arrow Coupe-| El Caganer759
Creative Commons License Photo credit: | El Caganer

Pierce Silver Arrow

The Pierce Silver Arrow was a concept car designed by James R. Hughes, of which five were produced in three months, a record speed. The car was then introduced at the 1933 New York Auto Show, causing a massive sensation due to its futuristic design, spare wheels hidden behind the front wheels, and a top speed of 115 mph. Only three Silver Arrows exist today.

1969_Chevrolet_Chevelle_Yenko_SC_427_Blue_Top_Rt_Frt_Qtr-mashleymorgan937
Creative Commons License Photo credit: mashleymorgan

1969 Chevelle

The Chevrolet Chevelle was a mid-sized car that debuted in 1964 and was in production from then until 1977. The Chevelle was one of General Motors’ most successful cars, with models ranging from family cars to coupes and convertibles. In 1969, SuperSport became a performance option for buyers of the Chevrolet Chevelle.

My new old car, a 1991 Mazda Miata-rutlo526
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Mazda Miata

The Mazda MX-5, which is also known as the Mazda Miata in North America and the Mazda Roadster in Japan, is a two-seater roadster sports car built by Mazda in Hiroshima, Japan. The car was introduced in 1989 and it is now in its third generation. Already, it has won over 150 auto awards because of its solid, impressive design and its various outstanding features. More than 740,000 Miatas have been sold worldwide.

Audi TT Quattro 3.2 Roadster-rumpleproofskin617
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Audi TT

The Audi TT is a sports car manufactured by German automaker Audi AG since 1998. Now in its second generation, the Audi TT is available either as a 2 x 2 coupe or as a two-seater roadster. The car was originally shown as a concept car at the 1995 Frankfurt Motor Show and his since become a popular vehicle throughout Europe and the United States.

Revere London continental gt blue with 22
Creative Commons License Photo credit: London Flash Cars

Bentley Continental

The Bentley Continental is a two-door “two plus two” grand touring coupe released in 2003, which replaced the previous Rolls-Royce-based Continental R and T. The car is reportedly able to go from 0 to 60 mph in about 4.7 seconds and can eventually reach a top speed of 197.6 mph, with the Bentley Continental GT Speed setting the World Speed Record on Ice. A new model, the Bentley Continental Supersports, is set to be in retail by the summer of 2010.

FERRARI 288 GTO-ANITA.trans - My way of life748
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Ferrari 288

The Ferrari 288 GTO is an exotic homologotation, from which the “O” in the name comes from, of the Ferrari 308 GTB produced from 1984 to 1986. The car was built to compete in the new Group B Race series with a minimum of 200 cars required for homologation. However, there were not enough entrants for the Group B series, leaving only the Group B Rally championship. This means that all 272 Ferrari 288 GTOs are road cars exclusively.

FERRARI 288 GTO-ANITA.trans - My way of life748
Creative Commons License Photo credit: wikipedia

Minivan

The Dodge Caravan is a minivan manufactured by Chrysler under the Dodge brand, along with its rebranded Plymouth Voyager. Both were introduced in 1983 and have become successful worldwide, with the Chrysler minivans having been named as the 13th best selling automotive nameplate worldwide. There are over 12 million minivans on the road today, cars praised for their storage capacity and friendliness towards larger families.

Mercedes McLaren SLR-stephenhanafin730
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Mercedes McLaren SLR

The Mercedes McLaren SLR is a supercar that was jointly developed by Mercedes-Benz and McLaren Automotive. The car features an automatic gear box, a front mid-engined arrangement, and certain driving characteristics, leading to a GT classification for the car. This means that some of its rival vehicles include the Aston Martin DBS V12 and the Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano. The SLR was dropped due to lack of sales in 2007.

Maserati Quattroporte-storem800
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Maserati Quattroporte

The Maserati Quattroporte is a luxury four-door saloon made by Italian automaker Maserati, whose name translated from Italian literally means “four doors.” There have been five generations of the Maserati Quattroporte, each separated by about five years. The car first came on the scene in 1963, at a time when the company’s reputation was at its peak.

Bugatti Veyron Hermes-J.Smith831167
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Bugatti Veyron

The Bugatti Veyron is a mid-engine grand tourer developed by the German automaker Volkswagen and produced by the Volkswagen brand Bugatti Automobiles SAS. The car is named after French racing driver Pierre Veyron, winner of the 24 hours of Le Mans in 1939 while racing for the original Bugatti company. About two hundred of these cars have been built and delivered through when production ceased in late 2008.

1958 Ford Country Sedan-Hugo90434
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Station Wagon

Station wagons are passenger automobiles with a body style similar to a sedan but with a roofline that extends over the whole cargo area, ending with a door that is more vertical than a typical hatchback. The term is used in America, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand, while the term “estate car” is used in British English. European automakers also use specific model names to distinguish their station wagons from their sedan counterparts. Throughout the 70s and 80s, station wagons were popular for families driving across the country on vacation.

1938 Buick Eight Woody Station Wagon-Dmentd140
Creative Commons License Photo credit: Dmentd

Woodie

“Woodie” is a term used to describe a specific style of car, generally to describe station wagons where the rear portion of the car’s bodywork is made of wood. This wood is most often visible, covered with a clear finish over either the entire area or just on the wooden framework. The majority of woodies were produced before the 1950s, before safety regulations began to catch up to the idea that wood frames may not be as safe as steel frames.

Chrysler PT Cruiser-JLaw45675
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PT Cruiser

The Chrysler PT Cruiser was launched by Chrylser as throwback to the retro-styled station wagon in 2000 and then was relaunched as a convertible in 2005. The PT Cruiser was first conceived as a model of the Plymouth, thus receiving the Chrysler nameplate due to the 2001 discontinuation of the Plymouth brand. The convertible was discontinued in 2007, while the PT Cruiser brand was also discontinued at the beginning of 2009.

1972_Jeep_Wagoneer_4_Door_Cream_Rt_Frt_Qtr-mashleymorgan115
Creative Commons License Photo credit: mashleymorgan

SUV

SUVs, or sport utility vehicles, is a general term for a vehicle that is similar to a station wagon but built on the chassis of a light truck. SUVs are generally also equipped with off-road capacities, the towing abilities of a pickup truck, and/or the passenger capacity of a minivan. SUVs are considered light trucks and are regulated less strictly by American laws and by many other laws around the world. In recent years, almost every auto manufacturer has created a SUV, as these vehicles have risen in popularity among US families.

1972_Jeep_CJ_5_V_8_in_Deep_Sand_Yellow_Low_Rt_Frt_Qtr-mashleymorgan551
Creative Commons License Photo credit: mashleymorgan

Jeep CJ

The Jeep CJ is the civilian version of the military vehicle that was used primarily during World War II. The first CJ prototype, the CJ-2, was introduced in 1944 by Willys and the same basic vehicle stayed in production until 1986. The Jeep CJ is notable for its extreme and enduring popularity throughout much of its production run, popularizing the idea of an offroad vehicle for consumer use.

Jaguar E-Type S3 V12 Coupe-Ed Callow [ torquespeak ]995
Creative Commons License Photo credit: Ed Callow [ torquespeak ]

Jaguar S-3

The Jaguar S-Type was produced from 1963-1968, a more sophisticated and advanced version of the Jaguar Mark 2. Sold alongside the Mark 2, the S-Type was a major redevelopment of the vehicle, replacing the Mark 2’s rear bodywork and adding a variety of interior and stylistic changes. Despite the age and relative poor technology of the Mark 2, it continued to sell well long into the Jaguar S-Type’s production run.

Lotus Esprit-dave_7360
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Lotus Esprit

The Lotus Esprit was a sportscar built by British automaker Lotus from 1976 to 2004. The design that eventually led to the Esprit was unveiled in 1972 at the Turin Motor Show. This car was the first to use designer Giorgetto Giugiaro’s “folded paper” designs, and a new Esprit is rumored to be under development.

Porsche 928 GTS-Ed Callow [ torquespeak ]371
Creative Commons License Photo credit: Ed Callow [ torquespeak ]

Porsche 928

The Porsche 928 is a grand tourer automobile sold by Porsche AG of Germany from the model years of 1978 to 1995, throughout which times it was one of Porsche’s most exclusive and expensive vehicles. In 1983, the Porsche 928S was the fastest car sold in North America, capable of reaching a top speed of 146 mph. Rumors have spread through the world of car enthusiasts that Porsche may be ready to breathe new life into the Porsche 928 model with a design that has been set aside but not forgotten.

1957 Ford Thunderbird -Custom_Cab396
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1957 Ford Thunderbird

The Thunderbird is an automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company in the United States over thirteen model generations, a production run that lasted 50 years from 1955 to 2005. Its introduction to the market created the niche that is now referred to as the Personal Luxury Car. The car is named after a mythological creature known by many Native Americans.

Ford Edsel 679UXE-Coradia100057
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Ford Edsel

The Ford Edsel has the ignominious distinction of being one of the biggest commercial failures in the history of American business. The car was born after Ford’s transition to publicly traded company, because of the fact that cars were not all designed by the Ford family themselves. Despite the car’s flashy advertisements and huge amounts of publicity upon its release, the Ford Edsel’s clunky design and poor features were enough to limit sales dramatically.

Tata Nano Europa-oval_BURNS873
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Tata Nano

The Tata Nano is a rear-engined, four-passenger city car built by Tata Motors, primarily aimed toward success in the Indian market. The car is praised for its fuel efficiency, achieving around 61 miles per gallon on the highway and about 52 miles per gallon in the city. In its first booking period from April 9, 2009, to April 25, 2009, the company generated about 200,000 bookings. Tata Motors aims to make its car the cheapest production car in the world.

1934 Chrysler Airflow-resedabear963
Creative Commons License Photo credit: resedabear

Chrysler Airflow

The Chrysler Airflow is a car produced by the Chrysler Corporation from 1934 to 1937. It was the first full-size American production car to use streamlining to build a sleeker car that is less subject to air resistance. Although Chrysler was attempting to make a fundamental change in automotive design by producing the Chrysler Airflow, the car itself turned out to be a commercial airflow.

AMC Pacer-carianoff262
Creative Commons License Photo credit: carianoff

AMC Pacer

The AMC Pacer is a two-door compact automobile produced in the US by the American Motors Corporation between 1975 and 1980, although the initial idea began in 1971. The car stood out from other cars in the era because of its rounded shape and large amounts of glass at a time when more cars were boxier. The Pacer’s distinct style became an emblematic icon of the 1970s and its automobiles.

Plymouth Prowler-exfordy333
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Plymouth Prowler

The Plymouth Prowler is a retro-styled production car built in 1997 and also in 1999-2002, based on the 1993 concept car of the same name. The design was said to come from the decision to allow Chrysler engineers to have free rein to design anything in the “hot rod” or “sportster” style. The most iconic feature of its design are the two exposed front wheels, which are more often seen in racecars.

Chevrolet SSR-califrayray328
Creative Commons License Photo credit: Charlie Brewer

Chevy SSR

The Chevrolet SSR, or Super Sport Roadster, was a retractable hard top convertible pickup truck manufactured by Chevrolet between 2003 to 2006. It featured retro styling based on the Chevrolet Trailblazer’s EXT platform. Sales of the cars never achieved the levels that General Motors hoped for the Chevy SSR.

Alfa Romeo Spider-dave_7681
Creative Commons License Photo credit: dave_7

Alfa Romeo Spider

The Alfa Romeo Spider is a roadster produced by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1966 to 2003 and the silhouette of the vehicle is generally considered to constitute a classic design. The car remained in production for three decades with only minor aesthetic and functional changes because of its popularity. The first prototype of the car was unveiled at the Turin Motor Show in 1961, but various factors kept it off the production line until 1965.

1969_Chevrolet_Camaro_RS_350_Convertible_Red_Frt_Qtr-mashleymorgan63
Creative Commons License Photo credit: mashleymorgan

1969 Camaro

The Chevrolet Camaro is a car manufactured by the Chevrolet division of General Motors and it is commonly classified as a pony car. Sale of the car began in 1966 and it was designed to compete with the Ford Mustang. The 1969 Camaro was the lost model edition of the first generation and would later serve as the inspiration for the fifth-generation retro Camaro.

AMC Gremlin-dave_7274
Creative Commons License Photo credit: dave_7

AMC Gremlin

The AMC Gremlin is a subcompact car that was produced by the American Motors Corporation for nine model years from 1970 to 1978. Throughout its production run, a total of 671,475 were built in the United States and Canada, described at the time of its introduction as the first American-built American subcompact car. Not even the name “Gremlin” could stop the car from becoming a massive success, as the automakers were confident in the car despite the negative connotations of its name.

VW Minibus - Abbey Street-infomatique40
Creative Commons License Photo credit: infomatique

VW Minibus

The Volkswagen Type 2, otherwise known as the Transporter or the Bus, was the second automotive line to be introduced by Volkswagen, introduced in 1950 and based on Volkswagen’s Type 1, the Beetle. This car spawned a variety of imitators and updated versions of the Volkswagen Type 2 are still sold today. These cars were often referred to as “hippie vans” because of their popularity during the 1960s and 1970s.

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